Reference list

 

Order

Alphabetical letter by letter, by surname of first author followed by initials.

References by the same single author are ordered by date, from oldest to most recent.

References by more than one author with the same first author are ordered after all references by the first author alone, by surname of second author, or if they are the same, the third author, and so on.

References by the same author with the same date are arranged alphabetically by title excluding 'A' or 'The', unless they are parts of a series, in which case order them by part number. Put a lower-case letter after the year: Aroud, J. (2015a). Aroud, J. (2015b).

For organizations or groups, alphabetize by the first significant word of their name.

If there is no author, put the title in the author position and alphabetize by the first significant word.

Form of author name

Use the authors' surnames and initials unless you have two authors with the same surname and initial, in which case the full name can be given:

Aroud, J. [Jane]. (2016).

Aroud, J. [Joel]. (2016).

If a first name includes a hyphen, add a full stop (period) after each letter: Jones, J.-P.

Book

One author

Author, A. A. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. London: Clarendon Press.

Two authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Three authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2016). This is a book title: And subtitle. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

More authors

Include all names up to seven. If there are more than seven authors, list the first six with an ellipsis before the last.

Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., ... Author, K. (2016).

Organization as author

American Psychological Association. (2003). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

No author

Merriam Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.

Chapter

Author, A. A. (2013). Chapter title. In K. L. Editor (Ed.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 130-216). Abingdon: Routledge.

Author, A. A. (2012). This is a chapter. In J. J. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Abingdon: Routledge.

Author, A. A. (2012). This is a chapter. In J. J. Editor, P. P. Editor, & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Abingdon: Routledge.

Edited

Editor, J. J. (Ed.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Editor, J. J., Editor, A. A., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon: Routledge.

Editor, J. J., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2012). Edited online book: And subtitle. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Edition

Author, A. A. (2012). Book title: And subtitle (4th ed.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Translated

Author, J. J. (2012). Book title: And subtitle. (L. Khan, Trans.). Abingdon: Routledge.

Not in English

If the original version of a book in a language other than English is used as a source, reference the original version, but give in brackets an English translation of the title after the original title.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.) [Title translated into English]. Place of publication: Publisher

Bennahmiasm, J.-L., & Roche, A. (1992). Des verts de toutes les couleurs: Histoire et sociologie du mouvement ecolo [Greens of all colours: history and sociology of the ecology movement]. Paris: Albin Michel.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de I'idee de hasard chez I'enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.

If your source is written in a language that does not use Latin characters (a, b, c, etc.), such as Russian, it is recommended (though not prescribed by the APA protocol) that you transliterate the details. So a book whose title is in Russian (i.e. written using Cyrillic characters), e.g. should be referenced like this:

Nabokov, V. (1999). Kommentarii k ‘Evgeniiu Oneginu’ Aleksandra Pushkina [A commentary on Alexander Pushkin’s ‘Eugene Onegin’]. Moscow: NPK.

Online

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work: Subtitle [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxx

Place of publication

Always list the city, and include the two-letter state abbreviation for US publishers. There is no need to include the country name:

New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Washington, DC: Author

Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Pretoria: Unisa

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Abingdon: Routledge

Publisher

If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the state in the publisher location:

Santa Cruz: University of California Press

Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press'. If two or more publishers are given, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher's home office. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press'. If two or more publishers are given, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher's home office. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Multivolume works

Multiple volumes from a multi-volume work

 

Levison, D., & Ember, M. (Eds). (1996). Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Henry Holt.

Use Vol. for a single volume and Vols, for multiple volumes.

In text, use (Levison & Ember, 1996).

 

A single volume from a multi-volume work

Nash, M. (1993). Malay. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of world cultures (Vol. 5, pp. 174-176). New York, NY: G.K. Hall.

In text, use (Nash, 1993).

Journal

One author

Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Provide the issue number ONLY if each issue of the journal begins on page 1. In such cases it goes in parentheses:

Journal, 8(1), pp-pp. Page numbers should always be provided.

If there is no DOI and the reference was retrieved from an online database, give the database name and accession number or the database URL (no retrieval date is needed):

Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

If there is no DOI and the reference was retrieved from a journal homepage, give the full URL or site's homepage URL:

Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

Two authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Three authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1987). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

More authors

Include all names up to seven. If there are more than seven authors, list the first six with an ellipsis before the last.

Author, M., Author, B., Author, E., Author, G., Author, D., Author, R., ... Author, P. (2001).

Organization as author

American Psychological Association. (2003). Title of article: And subtitle. Title of Journal, 2, 12-23. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx

No author

Editorial: Title of editorial. [Editorial]. (2012). Journal Title, 14, 1-2.

Not in English

If the original version is used as the source, cite the original version. Use diacritical marks and capital letters for the original language if needed. If the English translation is used as the source, cite the English translation. Give the English title without brackets. Titles not in English must be translated into English and put in square brackets.

Author, M. (2000). Title in German: Subtitle of Article [Title in English: Subtitle of article]. Journal in German, 21, 208-217. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author, P. (2000). Title in French [Title in English: Subtitle of article]. Journal in French, 21, 208-217. d o i: xx. xxxxxxxxxx

Peer-reviewed article published online ahead of the issue

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2012). Article title. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Supplemental material

If you are citing supplemental material which is only available online, include a description of the contents in brackets following the title. [Audio podcast] [Letter to the editor]

Other article types

Editorial: Title of editorial. [Editorial]. (2012). Title of Journal, 14, 1-2.

Author, A. A. (2010). Title of review. [Review of the book Title of book, by B. Book Author]. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Article in journal supplement

Author, A. A. (2004). Article title. Title of Journal, 42(Suppl. 2), xx-xx. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Conference

Proceedings

To cite published proceedings from a book, use book format or chapter format. To cite regularly published proceedings, use journal format.

Paper

Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Poster

Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of poster. Poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Thesis

Thesis

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Unpublished work

Manuscript

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2008). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2012). Title of manuscript. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Forthcoming article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (in press). Title of article. Title of Journal, doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx

Forthcoming book

Author, A. A. (in press). Book title: Subtitle.

Internet

Website

When citing an entire website, it is sufficient just to give the address of the site in the text. The BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk).

Web page

If the format is out of the ordinary (e.g. lecture notes), add a description in brackets.

Author, A. (2011). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

Newspaper or magazine

Newspaper or magazine

Author, A. (2012, January 12). Title of article. The Sunday Times, p. 1.

Author, A. (2012, January 12). Title of article. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.sundaytimes.com

Title of article. (2012, January 12). The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.sundaytimes.com/xxxx.html

Reports

May or may not be peer-reviewed; may or may not be published. Format as a book reference.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Working paper

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http: //www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Discussion paper

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http: //www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Personal communication

Personal communication

Personal communication includes letters, emails, memos, messages from discussion groups and electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews. Cite these only in the text. Include references for archived material only.

Other reference types

Patent

Cho, S. T. (2005). U.S. Patent No. 6,980,855. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Map

London Mapping Co. (Cartographer). (1960). Street map. [Map]. Retrieved from http://www.londonmapping.co.uk/maps/xxxxx.pdf

Act

Mental Health Systems Act, 41 U.S.C. § 9403 (1988).

Audio and visual media

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.

Author, A. (Producer). (2009, December 2). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http: //www. xxxxx. co m

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Smith, A. (Writer), & Miller, R. (Director). (1989). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Green (Executive Producer), Series. New York, NY: WNET.

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York, NY: WNET.

Database

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, A. A. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal Title, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from the ARTICLES database.

Data set

Author. (2011). National Statistics Office monthly means and other derived variables [Data set]. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from http://www.xxxxx.com

If the dataset is updated regularly, use the year of retrieval in the reference, and using the retrieval date is also recommended.

Computer program

Rightsholder, A. A. (2010). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.

Name of software (Version Number) [Computer software]. Location: Publisher.

If the program can be downloaded or ordered from a website, give this information in place of the publication information.