Journal of Language and Education https://jle.hse.ru/ <p><strong>Journal of Language and Education (JLE)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed electronic international journal published quarterly by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia. The journal publishes theoretical, analytical and research articles in the fields of linguistics, interdisciplinary linguistic studies, psycholinguistics, pedagogical psychology, methods of teaching languages and cross-cultural communication. The articles range from research-based work to personal experience of implementing a language course. The journal addresses academics, professionals, and students interested in innovations in phonetics, lexis, grammar, interdisciplinary linguistic studies and theory and practice of teaching languages.</p> National Research University "Higher School of Economics" en-US Journal of Language and Education 2411-7390 Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning on Learner Autonomy in EFL Reading Context https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7072 <p>Traditional classrooms confine English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading to the textbook and the classroom setting, something that demotivates active reading. With the advent of mobile technology, however, such boundaries can be broken to include external reading materials where students could read and share anytime and anywhere. This paper investigates the role of mobile technology in enhancing Learner Autonomy (LA) in the EFL reading context among students in the Preparatory Year (PY) of Najran University in Saudi Arabia. A reading class of 30 students utilised mobile applications (WhatsApp and internet search engines such as Google) to access external reading materials and interact with their peers and teachers outside the classroom. Qualitative data collection underwent a number of procedures. The baseline data was constructed from the students’ portfolios, which reported the participants’ traditional reading practices and use of mobiles. Then, the participants were encouraged to use internet search engines and WhatsApp group to share their readings. Finally, five participants were interviewed. The data analysis revealed that the participants’ LA is improved through the use of selected mobile applications in terms of taking responsibility for and making decisions about reading materials and the time and place of reading. The study recommends further investigation into the role of mobile applications for generating learners’ own tasks and writing skills.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Abduljalil Nasr Hazaea Ali Abbas Alzubi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 48 58 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-48-58 Bulgarian University Students’ Learning Style Preferences in ESL Classrooms https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7679 <p>Students’ attitudes towards learning and the perception and beliefs behind them may have a profound influence on learning behaviour and learning outcomes. Teachers’ awareness of such needs and preferences will result in more realistic and useful teaching strategies which, in turn, will have a facilitative effect on the learning process. Thus, learners should be given opportunities to express their own language learning preferences, especially in reference to the definition of objectives in general and awareness of strategies for learning. Moved with the conviction that learners and their preferences are of crucial importance in the development of learner autonomy, 74 students in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, were asked about their perceptions and preferences on ESL classroom activities. The results showed that learners were not always able to clearly define their preferences. This may be due to the fact that learning a foreign language is a culturally and psychologically different process than learning any other subject via the individual’s first language. Thus, educators have the additional responsibility to help learners to find their learning strengths, and by cognitive training help students to expand their learning style preferences. Also, implications from this study clearly display that teacher training programmes should seriously examine and implement innovative ways of teaching English considering students’ identity, character, and limitations.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Flora Komlosi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 30 47 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-30-47 “West” or “Vest”? Pronunciation of English Consonants [w] and [v] in the Utterances of Slovak EFL Speakers https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7384 <p>The paper investigates the pronunciation of the labiodental fricative [v] and the labial-velar approximant [w] in the word-initial position in English utterances by Slovak speakers. The objective of the study is to explore which of the two consonants appear to be more problematic for Slovak learners of English. 40 students from a Slovak university produced spontaneous monologues in English, which were recorded using a computer and a standard microphone. Afterwards, two native English speakers conducted a subjective auditory analysis in an attempt to identify errors in the subjects’ pronunciation. The results demonstrate that Slovak learners of English frequently encounter difficulties in pronouncing the two consonants, sometimes substituting [v] for [w] and vice versa. The data obtained indicate that the subjects were beset with problems mispronouncing the two sounds to almost the same degree. Possible causes of the erroneous pronunciation seem to involve native language interference, devoting extra effort to approach authentic English pronunciation, and the neglect of pronunciation instruction.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Rastislav Metruk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 24 29 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-24-29 The Relationships Between the Accuracy of Self-Evaluation, Kanji Proficiency and the Learning Environment for Adolescent Japanese Heritage Language Learners https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7119 <p>This paper focuses on Japanese heritage language (JHL) learners in an Australian context. The paper reports on a research project in a hoshuu-koo institution, a Japanese supplementary school, and explores the experiences of a group of Year 7 students. This study was initiated by identifying to what extent JHL learners can recognise their own skills, especially in proficiency in kanji, one of the Japanese scripts. It was predicted that several elements could relate to the accuracy of self-evaluation. By exploring levels of self-evaluation skills and the elements concerned in Japanese learning, the aim of the research was to help develop differentiated curriculum in the future. Data were based on student performance on kanji tests and answers to questionnaires, and the Excel Correl Function was used to calculate correlation coefficients. Graphs were also used to analyse the data. It was found that students who had relatively high kanji proficiency, especially in higher year levels, recognised their own skills but an overall overestimation was found amongst other students. Specific areas of kanji learning, such as okurigana and radicals, were identified as areas that need to be enhanced for appropriate self-evaluation for most of the students. Learning environment related to evaluation skills was also identified. Concluding comments centre on implications for further teaching approaches and research on the enhancement of kanji self-evaluation skills.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Mizue Aiko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 6 23 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-6-23 Overcoming the Grammar Barrier in Foreign Language Learning: The Role of Television Series https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7521 <p>Mastering the grammar of a foreign language requires learning the rules as well as the contexts within which the structures are used. Formal grammar instruction should therefore be augmented by exposing learners to authentic language. According to the literature, watching television series in the target language improves listening comprehension and enhances vocabulary acquisition. No study to date, however, has investigated the recursive use of one series, in the classroom and over an entire course, to explicitly teach grammar. Presenting apt pedagogical arguments substantiated by the literature on grammar instruction and evidence from the classroom, this article maintains that a television series can be an invaluable source of authentic language and an excellent means to teach grammar in context. It recommends using the dialogues in the scenes to teach and illustrate grammatical structures, especially those that are very different or do not exist in the learners’ mother tongue. The article also proposes giving students pertinent writing tasks and adequate corrective feedback to help them internalize these structures. Consistent with recent studies indicating a strong connection between emotion and cognition, this method raises the students’ motivation and enhances grammar learning; as such, it can supplant or complement conventional practices of grammar instruction and thereby warrants empirical studies. Finally, the article delineates directions for future research to elucidate how television series contribute to the teaching and learning of grammar.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Deborah Azaryad Shechter ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 92 104 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-92-104 A Study on the Attributes of Effective English Lecturers as Perceived by EFL Learners: The Case of Indonesia https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7381 <p>This study aims to uncover the attributes of effective English lecturers and any significant differences between male and female EFL learners in determining the attributes of effective EFL lecturers. The study utilized a descriptive study design by asking 52 EFL learners to be respondents by filling in a questionnaire. The results depicted that the attributes associated with the ‘rapport’ category were friendliness, relationship, experiences, positive attitudes, and sense of humour. An independent t-test also showed there was no significant difference between male and female EFL learners in determining these attributes. The attributes of the ‘delivery’ category included enthusiasm, clarity, correction, and encouragement. The attributes of the ‘fairness’ category included treatment and standard. The attributes of the ‘knowledge and credibility’ category included proficiency and knowledge. The attributes of the ‘organization and preparation’ category included preparation, course contents, objectives, and materials. As for the implications, the attributes enable EFL lecturers to figure out various strategies for teaching English. Moreover, it is advantageous for EFL learners in that they can adjust their learning styles with the attributes.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Heri Mudra ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 59 67 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-59-67 Androcentrism of English proverbs and Anti-Proverbs with Gender Components https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7725 <p>Since the 20th century with the birth of feminism, gender studies have undergone analysis in many areas of knowledge. Special attention has been paid to the theory of androcentricity in the English language and the deficiency of female images in speech. In this article, the images of men and women presented by English proverbs and anti-proverbs are analyzed. The objective of this research is to find out if proverbs are androcentric and present male mindsets and world views. The other aim is to check whether anti-proverbs reflect the changing role of women in society. To fulfill these purposes, proverbs with gender components (man/woman, wife/husband, he/she etс.) were selected and underwent a semantic analysis. In order to reveal the evolution of the images of men and women we compared the images of men and women illustrated in proverbs with those shown in anti-proverbs with the same gender components. As a result, we came to the conclusion that both proverbs and anti-proverbs are androcentric; however, in anti-proverbs female opinions are more representative when compared to proverbs. To sum up, it is obvious that the role of women is changing and the changes are reflected in the language.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Maria Kirsanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 68 77 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-68-77 French Grammatical Accents: Practices, Sociolinguistic Foundations, and Pedagogical Implications in a Multilingual Setting https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7084 <p>The present paper probes the use of French grammatical accents by English-speaking learners of French in a multilingual country: Cameroon. Its aim is twofold. First, it highlights the extent to which the various appropriative uses of French by French-speaking Cameroonians influence the form of the language spoken by their English-speaking counterparts. Then, it checks the effect of the language spoken by these learners on their written language. The data were collected among 160 Form 3 and Form 4 pupils from two high schools in the town of Maroua, Far North Region, Cameroon. Six tests and fifty tape recordings were carried out among the target population. Also, four French teachers were tape recorded during the exercise. The analysis of the errors made by the informants revealed significant patterns of acute and grave accents in the spoken language of respondents. These patterns of oral usage were found to strongly correlate with their written production. It therefore appears that Cameroon French displays some specific phonological characteristics, which severely spoils the acquisition of grammatical accents by English-speaking Cameroonians. These findings may revive the debate over whether French in former colonies should adapt to its contexts or keep its native purity.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Antoine Willy Ndzotom Mbakop Sonia Laurei Emalieu Kanko Adrienne Michelle Tida ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 78 91 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-78-91 Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes in Higher Education. Yasemin Kirkgöz & Kenan Dikilitaş (Eds.), Vol. 11. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2018. 353 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-70213-1 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7802 Lilia Raitskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-30 2018-06-30 4 2 105 107 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-2-105-107 Learner-Centered Approaches: Their Effect on the Oral Fluency of Students https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6969 <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of learner-centered approaches on the oral fluency of the second-year students in English 202-Communicative English. The study employed a quasi-experimental method, particularly the pre-test and post-test experimental group design. Two groups of students were utilized as the experimental groups of the study. The findings of the study revealed that both groups acquired the same level of oral fluency before the intervention but acquired different levels of fluency after. Based on the result, the conclusion was that the level of speaking fluency of the participants exposed to cooperative learning improved significantly more than those exposed to task-based teaching. An experimental study conducted over a longer period of time and employing randomization could be considered to further investigate the possible results.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Melody Joyce Maasin-Ceballos Roel Famat Ceballos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 6 17 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-6-17 “That German stuff”: Negotiating Linguistic Legitimacy in a Foreign Language Classroom https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7173 <p>This qualitative case study of one German suburban high school classroom in the Midwestern United States examines how learners of German negotiate their linguistic legitimacy, which is defined as discursively constructed acceptance or validation for their language use. Specifically, it investigates how the students negotiated legitimacy for using their target language German in their classroom. Based on the premise that linguistic legitimacy is crucial for the maintenance and development of speakers’ languages, data was collected and analyzed from classroom recordings, semi-structured interviews, and participant observations. Findings revealed that, while English dominated the lessons as the default legitimate language among the students, using German was accepted and valued under certain circumstances. Such instances of linguistic legitimacy included the use of German for entertainment or in role plays, a pattern which points to the students’ desire to mitigate investment and display “uninvestment” in learning or using German. Implications for foreign language (FL) pedagogy and teacher education are discussed.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Johanna Ennser-Kananen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 18 30 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-18-30 Incidence and Nature of Negotiations for Meaning during Uncontrolled Speaking Practice in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7118 <p>The past three decades have seen an increasing interest in negotiation for meaning as interactional processes which advance language acquisition. Motivated by this claim, a number of studies have set out to determine the tasks that best promote negotiations for meaning (NfMs). However, this research has mostly tended to investigate NfM under experimental conditions, leaving considerably unexplored the negotiated interactions that might take place in real English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms. In response to this, the present study sets out to investigate the incidence and nature of NfM in three uncontrolled EFL classrooms. In examining several teacher- and learner-led speaking tasks at basic, intermediate and advanced levels, the findings indicate that the amount of NfM is lower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, a qualitative analysis of the interactional data suggests that the NfM across proficiency levels was limited in nature, and thus did not provide learners with all the learning benefits inherent in negotiation for meaning. These findings raise intriguing questions as to teachers’ and learners’ opportunities to negotiate meaning during EFL classroom interactions, and ways through which they can promote negotiated interactions in their EFL classrooms.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Edgar Emmanuell Garcia-Ponce, Dr. Irasema Mora-Pablo, Dr. ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 31 41 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-31-41 The Effects of Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction on Content Vocabulary Learning of Students https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7127 <p>The present article is an investigation about the effects of mnemonic vocabulary teaching to improve content vocabulary learning in EFL classrooms. A major issue with the most of the past studies was that they paid little or no attention to the effects of using mnemonic strategies to improve content vocabulary learning. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how key word mnemonic vocabulary teaching can improve the comprehension and learning of the content vocabulary for the students. To this end, 256 third year senior high school students from 6 senior high schools in Zanjan (Iran) were selected through a multistage cluster random sampling method and based on the Cambridge placement test (2010), 230 students proved to be upper intermediate. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of a mnemonic vocabulary intervention on content vocabulary learning. In this article there were one control group (A, n=115), and one experimental group (C, n=115) all of which were male and there were selected randomly. This study was done in May 2017, and over four weeks, in two thirty-minute sessions per week, group C received key word mnemonic instruction. In order to test the effects of mnemonic vocabulary teaching on content vocabulary learning, the covariance analysis was employed and the results demonstrated that by eliminating the covariance factor of the pre-test, mnemonic vocabulary instruction improved content vocabulary learning for students. The use of keyword mnemonics as a means to differentiate instruction is an educational result that can assist teachers.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Parima Fasih Siros Izadpanah Ali Shahnavaz ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 42 62 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-42-62 The Validation Process in the IELTS Reading Component: Reading Requirements for Preparing International Students https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7207 <p>Although IELTS is coordinated under a framework for test development and validation, there is some controversy about exam results’ correlation with students’ post-admission intellectual, academic and professional performance. The theoretical part of the research aims to investigate the extent to which the IELTS reading component relates meaningfully to interpretations of validity. The empirical part addresses questions about perceptions of the impact of the IELTS reading preparation on adjustment to the challenges of academia and further academic performance and variances in these perceptions depending on the area of study and the level of language mastery. While having quite different views on assessing IELTS validity, the researchers agree that academic success is enhanced through and based on extensive substantive reading. The methodology relied on both qualitative and quantitative data derived from an anonymous online questionnaire: 133 international students with Russian citizenship, Global Education Programme (GEP) finalists, participated in the survey in summer 2017. Five different result interpretations were taken into account: overall results, those for sciences and humanities, higher and lower achievers’ results. The discussion is built around test-takers’ opinions on the IELTS exam, the reading component and scores. The issues discussed include, but are not limited to: reading strategies, information sources required at university, tasks effectiveness, exam preparation usefulness to academic adjustment and its influence on academic achievement, its resourcefulness for the formation of linguistic capabilities, and respondents’ perception of extra factors for exam success. Potentially increasing jeopardy of negative washback is shown as an emerging problem. Although test-taking ability is not depicted as a crucially important factor affecting exam success, it is increasingly significant and its harmful effects may be expressed in illusionary higher levels of validity due to visually improved results. Quality preparation for the reading test can train a number of essential skills required in academia; however, preparation itself does not appear to be a significant factor for smoother adjustment to academic challenges, as it is highly dependent on preliminary linguistic background. There is a necessity to communicate broader information to learners through the IELTS handbook, website and other communication channels. EAP tutors should encourage their students to make efforts to cover the subject without framing it within boundaries of measurement, but with a clear understanding of future academic and professional challenges.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Marina Kovalenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 63 78 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-63-78 There is no Alternative! Student Perceptions of Learning in a Second Language in Lebanon https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7304 <p>Since 1997, children in Lebanese state schools are taught most of the curriculum in English or French. The children’s first language, Arabic, may be used even less in private schools, which educate 70% of children. In many countries, mother tongue education is seen as a right but in Lebanon it is taken for granted that children are taught in English or French. Written opinions were collected from seventy-five university students who were asked about the language in education policy. The results of a thematic analysis were discussed with a focus group of eight students. Findings point to a widespread acceptance of the policy, partly based on an underlying belief in the unsuitability of Arabic for the 21st century and a perception that the Lebanese are culturally predisposed to learn languages. Using the concept of linguistic imperialism, we discuss these results with reference to French colonialism and the global spread of English medium instruction. We also use a critical definition of ideology to discuss how a discourse in favour of the language in education policy, which actually favours the interests of the Lebanese elite, has been internalised by the students who see emigration as their only future.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Mike Orr Samer Annous ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 79 91 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-79-91 Influence of L1 Properties and Proficiency on the Acquisition of Gender Agreement https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7380 <p>This research investigates the influence of L1 properties and proficiency level on the acquisition of the Spanish gender agreement system. French and English-speaking learners of Spanish participated in the study. Subjects were divided into four different groups considering their L1 (French and English) and their proficiency level (intermediate and advanced). Subjects completed three different tasks: an untimed grammaticality judgment (UGJT) to measure learners’ explicit knowledge, an elicited oral imitation (EOI) and an eye-tracking to assess their implicit knowledge of the Spanish gender agreement system. From this multi-tiered methodology, this research project aimed to examine whether L1 properties and proficiency level influence learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of the Spanish gender agreement. The results from the UGJT suggest that both French and English learners can notice noun-adjective discord. As for the EOI and eye-tracking tasks, only the French advanced learners clearly demonstrated integrated implicit knowledge of gender agreement. Therefore, based on these results, we can imply that implicit knowledge of gender agreement is acquired later and that L1 properties influence this whole process, even at an advanced proficiency level.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Pierre-Luc Paquet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 92 104 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-92-104 EFL Reading Metacomprehension from the Developmental Perspective: A Longitudinal Case https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6966 <p>As the first half of the literacy equation (reading + writing = literacy), reading is primarily considered a dynamic meaning-focused interaction in which the reader is required to build comprehension of a text in a non-linear way. In other words, the reader is constantly checking the degree to which he or she understands the given information, simultaneously trying to identify comprehension failures and employ efficient repair strategies. This ability is termed metacomprehension; when it is enhanced, comprehension is generally more successful. Metacomprehension appears to be even more important for non-native readers because of their limited vocabulary and grammar. This is the key theoretical background of the single case study described in the current paper since it follows the developmental path of an EFL learner (Croatian teenager) with special focus on his reading ability. The main aim of the study was to see how his metacomprehension would develop over an extended period of exposure to EFL in the school setting. It was based on the hypothesis that extended exposure would result in better awareness of comprehension during the reading process. The study was conducted in two parts (Grade 5 and Grade 8) and comprised a number of stages. Being a case study, multiple sources and techniques were applied in gathering data, both qualitative and quantitative, such as: a multiple-choice comprehension test, a questionnaire for measuring the reader’s awareness of strategic reading processes (in Grade 5), an English proficiency test, a text restoration task, the self-revelation (stream-of-consciousness data) technique, a post-reading interview, and observation notes (in Grade 8). The results obtained initially indicated the participant’s good EFL reading comprehension performance but later showed that he was less successful, which was related to his poor EFL proficiency. In terms of reading strategy, it can be added that, despite some initial strategic abilities, the participant did not significantly develop his strategic behaviour for EFL reading. To conclude, prolonged exposure to EFL did not lead to better reading metacomprehension in this particular school learner.</p> <p><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> Renata Šamo Alenka Mikulec ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 105 116 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-105-116 Gender, Power and Political Speech. Women and Language in the 2015 UK General Election. Deborah Cameron and Sylvia Shaw. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-137-58752-7 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6982 Elena Gabrielova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-31 2018-03-31 4 2 117 119 10.17323/2411-7390-2018-4-1-117-119 A Survey of Teachers’ Experience in Implementing Yoruba Medium of Instruction in the Lower Primary Schools of Ikire Nigeria https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/5545 <div>The paper investigated the local implementation of the National Policy of Education (NPE) on the use of mother tongues or the languages of the immediate community. Using a case study approach of Yoruba medium of instruction in Ikire in the south-western part of Nigeria, data were collected from 50 teachers from both private and public schools. These respondents were selected on being able to satisfy the following conditions: first, they should be able to communicate in Yoruba; second, they should have adequate teaching experience; third, they should have good academic qualifications; and fourth, they should have been teaching, for more than a year, Elementary Science (the particular classroom subject the study examined being taught to the pupils). These conditions ensured the teachers engaged had cognate experience in teaching a science subject that can reveal the level of terminology development within Yoruba as an adequate medium of mother tongue instruction. The result affirmed the advantages of Yoruba medium of instruction over English; however, Yoruba was not exclusively used for the pupils contrary to the expectation in the mother tongue medium of instruction policy. Most of the teachers used in the study preferred to employ a bilingual mode of instruction combining Yoruba with English, claiming that English had better educational resources for the subject they were teaching. This paper, though, based on a local case study, can be used to estimate the expected limitation to be encountered while implementing mother tongue instruction in a similar linguistic domain.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Akintoye Japhet ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 6 15 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-6-15 Maternal Ideology in an MTN® Advertisement: Analysing Socio-Semiotic Reality as a Campaign for Peace https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7138 <div>It seemed that the issue of maternal ideology as a device to curb social menaces has not attracted scholars. Thus, the study examined the use of maternal ideology in mobile telephone network (MTN®) as a means of influencing recipients against vices instead of the primary assignment of the product advertising. The author utilised an advert of MTN, Sharing is good, as an object of analysis. The theoretical underpinning of the investigation was the concept of Theme as a functional approach to social semiotics. Theme interconnects the text with visual images to elucidate the meaning-making potential of the framework. The study revealed that the mother and the daughter operate in the same functional environment without any objections from either. The relationship demonstrates humility, complementarity, shareability and generosity. The message of the advert could influence corrupt elements of society such as terrorists, kidnappers, and violence campaigners to abandon nefarious acts and to embrace good behaviours. The idea propagated, perhaps, deserves voluntary emulation. Thus, the article argues that national and international stakeholders could make policy to direct advertising professionals to communicate their thoughts with materials that can support peace and harmony in our society. Such an exercise could persuade advertisers to reduce their focus on mental capitalism alone.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 16 26 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-16-26 Test Takers’ Perceptions towards BEC Exams: a Case Study of a Russian University https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6991 <div>This is a qualitative study of candidates’ motivation to take BEC exams and their expectations towards the exam results, which was conducted at the Cambridge Exam Preparation Center in a Russian university. The research dataset comprised 33 participants who took part in face-to-face in-depth semi-structured interviews. Overall, candidates show a positive attitude to BEC at different exam levels. The main reasons for preparing for and taking the exams are extrinsic and defined by the institutional environment. The respondents opt for BEC exams as they intend to receive an international education (master’s level) and/or build a successful career in international organizations. The study also revealed a connection between candidates’ expectations toward exam results and their age and level of language proficiency.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elizaveta Smirnova Tatyana Permyakova Marina Sheveleva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 27 35 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-27-35 The Semantic Expansion of ‘Wife’ and ‘Husband’ among the Yorùbá of Southwestern Nigeria https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7139 <div>Although one of the existing studies on Nigerian or African kinship terms has argued that semantic expansion of such words constitutes an absurdity to the English society, none has argued for the necessity of a specialized dictionary to address the problem of absurdity to the English society, the custodian of the English language. This is important especially now that the language has become an invaluable legacy which non-native speakers of the language use to express their culture as well as the fact that the English people now accept the Greek and Hebrew world-views through Christianity. This paper provides additional evidence in support of semantic expansion of kingship terms like ‘wife’ and ‘husband’ not only in a Nigerian or an African language but also in Greek and Hebrew languages. The paper argues that if English is to play its role as an international language, it will be desirable if our lexicographers can publish a specialized dictionary that will take care of kinship terms, as it is the case in some other specialized dictionaries on the different professions such as medicine, nursing, linguistics and agriculture, to mention but a few, so as to guide against ambiguity or absurdity that may arise in language use in social interactions.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Reuben Olúwáfé̩mi Ìkò̩tún ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 36 43 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-36-43 Roundtable Discussion in Language Teaching: Assessing Subject Knowledge and Language Skills https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7142 <div>Roundtable discussions have been effectively used for educational purposes for years. However, being widely used in an academic environment as a tool for education, roundtable discussions remain under-investigated as a form of summative and formative assessment. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficiency of a roundtable discussion to evaluate subject knowledge and to test EFL/ESL proficiency level both during the classroom assessment and final examination. To use a roundtable discussion as an objective assessment tool, clear criteria were developed. They included but were not limited to scoring the task completion, macro and micro skills in speaking and language components, which were assessed according to the CEFR descriptor bands appropriate to the students’ level of learning. Being crucial to the development of general communicative competence, macro and micro skills in speaking were also taken into account during the assessment stage. Results of the research showed that roundtable discussions were clearly advantageous to face-to-face interviews in honing general academic skills, assessing subject knowledge of the course and students’ EFL/ESL language skills. This suggests that the use of roundtable discussions can be recommended as a form of summative and formative assessment.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Aida Rodomanchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 44 51 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-44-51 Stressed and Unstressed Syllable Alternation in Educated Edo (Nigerian) English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7136 <div>Standard British English (SBE) rhythm is characterised by stressed and unstressed syllable alternation. Phonological investigations from non-native English such as Nigerian English (NE) have claimed that NE differs remarkably from SBE, especially in the area of rhythm. Existing phonological studies on Educated Edo English (EEE) – a sub-variety of NE – have been on word and variable stress while studies on stressed and unstressed syllable alternation have been rare. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which Educated Edo English Speakers (EEES) stressed and unstressed syllable alternation conforms to SBE rhythm. Prince and Liberman’s (1977) metrical theory, which explains the alternation of strong and weak constituents in SBE rhythm units, served as a theoretical framework. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 150 (75 males and 75 females) EEES while 2 SBE speakers served as Native Baselines (NB). Speech Filing System (SFS) version 1.41 was used to record the production of a validated instrument of 40 rhythm units, with stressed and unstressed syllable alternation. The recordings were transcribed and subjected to a perceptual analysis (frequency and percentages). Out of 6000 expected instances of stressed and unstressed syllable alternation, the participants had 694 (11.6%), while inappropriate use was higher, with 5,306 (88.4%). The performance of EEES males showed 5.7% and the females 5.9%. The grids of EEES showed proliferation of Strong/Strong (S/S) juxtaposition of stressed and unstressed syllables in rhythm units, compared to the NB alternation of Weak/Strong (W/S) or Strong/Weak (S/W). Results confirmed that EEES alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in rhythm units differ ‘markedly’ from those of the SBE form.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Julianah Akindele ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 52 59 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-52-59 The Style and Timbre of English Speech and Literature. Marklen E. Konurbaev. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 203 pp. ISBN 978-1-137-51947-4 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/7378 Keith Rawson-Jones ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 73 75 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-73-75 Vocabulary Strategies and Bridging the Gap from Learning to Read to Reading to Learn https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/5546 <div>The present study offers a solution to students’ difficulties in reading by examining the effect of two instructional strategies for teaching reading: semantic mapping and morphological analysis, using multimedia as a vehicle for achieving the desired goals. Technology in the present study incorporates fun, meaningful resources that enhance the experimental group students’ vocabulary, and allow the reading instructor to assess the students’ progress in reading. 58 EFL university students enrolled in the first year of the English Department at Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia participated in the present study. They were chosen randomly and were divided into two groups; an experimental group and a control one. Each group had 29 participants aged between twenty and twenty one years old. A pre-test was applied to check out their standard in comprehending the reading texts before the inauguration of the experiment. During the time of the experiment, the control group was taught by the traditional method which focuses on relying on their memorization of long lists of vocabulary, rote learning, reading aloud, repetition and the translation of the new vocabulary. Participants of the experimental group were taught by semantic mapping and morphological analysis that focus on the comprehension of the key vocabulary and concepts included in the reading texts. The experimental group only was taught in the reading classes by implementing the semantic mapping and morphological analysis strategies while the control group was taught by the traditional previously mentioned way. The post-test was applied on both groups of the study at the end of the experiment to check out the students’ reading comprehension standard. The experiment lasted for three months’ time during the first semester of the year 2015. The findings revealed that teaching reading by semantic mapping and morphological analysis strategies improved experimental group students’ comprehension of the reading texts.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Kholood Moustafa Alakawi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 60 72 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-60-72 Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory & Method. Jalilifar A. R. (Eds.). Ahvaz, Iran: University of Ahvaz Press, 2014. 370 pp. ISBN 978-600-141-158-8 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6968 <p>Plenty of books have written in Discourse Analysis, and the book, <em>Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory &amp; Method,</em> is another welcomed addition to this vital field of Applied Linguistics. Many books in this field are limited to a specific framework of discourse analysis (Coulthard, 1992; Christie, 2002; Gee, 1999; Walsh, 2006) to name but a few. Introducing a specific theoretical framework and orientation has almost been a tradition in preparing such textbooks, while it seems that there is a need for publications which take into account the fast-growing field of discourse analysis, where discerning similarities and differences are becoming subtle. I think similar to Hyland &amp; Paltridge (2011), <em>Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory &amp; Method</em> by Professor Jalilifar is another attempt to meet such a need. As the title of the book indicates, the emphasis is on a wide range of recent approaches, wherein the author presents them under a separate but a related chapter. He successfully brings together similar and contradictory themes under a single topic.</p> Aiyoub Jodairi Pineh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-31 2017-12-31 4 2 76 77 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-4-76-77 Baranova, J., Dingemanse, M. (2016). Reasons for requests. Discourse Studies, 18(6), 641-675 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6967 Lilit Beganyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-19 2017-10-19 4 2 79 82 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-79-82 Second and Foreign Language Education. Nelleke Van Deusen-Scholl & Stephen May (Eds.), 3rd ed., Vol. 4. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017. 458 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-02245-1 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6981 Lilia Raitskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 115 117 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-115-117 Gamifying Content and Language Integrated Learning with Serious Videogames https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4407 <div>New methods and approaches focusing on foreign language teaching are continuously being developed and applied in the classroom at different educational levels. The interest in raising learners’ competences in foreign languages has been a fact in the last few decades. In this sense, approaches integrating the learning of non-linguistic content through a vehicular language that is not the learners’ mother tongue have been widely used around the world. However, it seems that some benefits of those approaches integrating language and content could be further strengthened if the time of exposure to content and language was higher and if students were highly motivated to learn. To this purpose, this article suggests that serious videogames could be a suitable tool to provide learners with further teaching support and increase their motivation in a playful context and introduces a model that aims at gamifying and integrating content and language learning through serious videogames.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Ricardo Casañ Pitarch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 107 114 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-107-114 University of Ilorin Final Year Students’ Experience in Practice Teaching Exercise https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6824 <div>Practice teaching is a vital aspect of the teacher preparatory program in teacher training institutions. This study examined the University of Ilorin final year students’ experience in a practice teaching exercise. It made use of descriptive survey research design. The population for this study were all students of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The researchers’ self-developed questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.63 was used for data collection while the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics of independent t-test. It was found that during the course of practice teaching exercises, student-teachers acquired skills which enabled them to use a variety of teaching methods, and instructional resources, improved their skills in tests construction, scoring and recording, built their teaching confidence and presentation, among others. However, student-teachers were faced with a number of challenges in the course of lesson presentation during practice teaching. It was, therefore, recommended among others, that student-teachers should not perceive their personality and logical presentation of instructional objectives as challenges but rather should embrace and exploit it to improve and widen their (cognitive) domains.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Musa Siddiq Abdullahi Mussa Salisu ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 99 106 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-99-106 Gendered Patterns in Teacher-Student Interaction in EFL Classroom: The Greek Context https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6469 <div>The present research endeavours to shed light on the role that gender plays in the language classroom in the Greek context. As no systematic investigation has considered special aspects of gender and interaction in primary school classrooms, this study seeks to investigate how teachers and students position themselves within different discourses in EFL classroom interaction. The issues discussed include turn-taking and interruptions, praise and reprimand, class dominance, teacher attention and class participation in classroom interaction. Drawing on language and gender research, it was hypothesized that gender of the learner affects the learner’s language use and behaviour during EFL interaction. This study advances our understanding of gendered classroom interaction and highlights important ways in which students’ gender influences teacher-student, as well as student-student interaction. Moreover, this study sheds light on gender bias which occurs in the classroom and thus impedes teachers’ abilities to work successfully with all students. The Greek data revealed great similarity with findings of previous studies by supporting the assumption that: (a) teachers are biased in favour of boys, especially with respect to giving them more attention; (b) male students demand more teacher attention and more instructions from the teacher than their female peers; (c) female students are more likely to receive praise and positive comments, whereas male students are reprimanded by the teacher; (d) male students are more active in class participation, by taking more turns, volunteering and calling out.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Stella Minasyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 89 98 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-89-98 Displacement and Overall Conflictual Relations (OCR) as Patterns to Instantiate Academic Conflict in Major Applied Linguistics Textbooks https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4855 <div>Following Giannoni’s classification of the rhetorical strategies for overt (rather than covert) negative evaluation, the current study aimed to investigate lexico-grammatical structures to instantiate Overall Conflictual Relations and Displacement as two major rhetorical strategies to realize Academic Conflict in two distinct corpora of textbooks in applied&nbsp; linguistics specifically taught at MA and PhD levels. Adopting a Mixed-Methods Approach, the study revealed the various lexico-grammatical items that were frequently used to instantiate Displacement and Overall Conflictual Relations. Qualitatively, the emerging patterns and the functions they served were delineated. At the quantitative stage of the approach, the corresponding distributions of the emerging patterns were investigated and recorded. This corpus-based study also found that the two corpora utilized resources for expression of Overall Conflictual Relations with an almost similar distribution; however, there was a statistically significant difference between the MA versus PhD textbooks concerning the use of Displacement. The study found the important functions of the strategies as the ways to put two ideas in opposition to later take side with one at the expense of discarding the other. The study also found that the strategies were among the prominent incentives to construct knowledge in the field.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Babak Majidzadeh A. Majid Hayati ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 68 88 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-68-88 Fostering Economics Students’ Listening Skills through Self-regulated Learning https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6470 <div>This study aims at fostering students’ listening skills by scaffolding their self-study learning practices in the English for Special Purposes (ESP) course. While there is a significant body of research exploring classroom-based teaching approaches, there is little empirical research into how students develop their ESP listening skills outside the classroom. Our study suggests that developing a self-regulated model for acquiring ESP listening skills in a self-study mode is an efficient way to improve students’ performance as it provides them with relevant scaffolding and makes the listening process more transparent. The article provides theoretical grounding for the self-study model. The entry-level and post-study tests in listening scores (IELTS test) are compared across the control and the experimental groups (60 students in total). The results of the study indicate that students who were developing their listening skills in a self-study mode via the designed scaffolding performed significantly better than their peers in the control group. Scaffolding self-study listening practices of students outside the classroom prove to be a significant factor in facilitating English learning in an ESP classroom.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Lastochkina Natalia Smirnova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 60 67 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-60-67 Applied Discourse Markers in Casual Conversations of Male Students in Dormitory Settings and Their Pedagogical Implications for EFL: An Iranian Case Study https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4466 <div>This study is designed to investigate the specific discourse markers that mostly occur in casual conversations among university students who live in dormitories, and to study the amount of attention these expressions receive pedagogically in the context of improving EFL speaking skills. Regarding gender, the investigation was carried out on male students and special topics they talked about are also examined. To fulfill this objective, 6 hours and 3 minutes of casual conversations among 50 students (28 BA and 22 MA) located in 10 dormitory rooms (5 in the BA and 5 in the MA) was audio-recorded and transcribed based on Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson’s transcription system. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview was used to investigate participants’ attitudes towards the degree of emphasis of EFL teachers on Discourse Markers (DMs). The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively (interview transcripts). According to the findings, 70 discourse markers recurred in the students’ interactions. Likewise, specific topics that received more attention in their conversations were identified. Moreover, the results of the semi-structured interview indicated that discourse markers did not receive sufficient attention in EFL settings. The findings of the current study suggest that instructors and material developers could give more specific attention to discourse markers. Explaining their roles in the production of accurate utterances or bringing samples of natural usage of discourse markers could be of great help to boost learners’ oral skills in the EFL context.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Farideh Okati Parviz Ghasedi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 50 59 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-50-59 Enquiry-Based Approach in Mobile-Supported Classroom to Develop Language Skills https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6940 <div>This article investigates the pedagogical impact of both the mobile-testing system PeLe and an enquiry-based approach to language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted language learning. The study aims to work out a methodological framework for PeLe implementation into a language classroom through immediate feedback and formative assessment. The framework was developed and pilot tested in a joint research project, MobiLL, by EFL teachers at Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russia) and University College HiST (Norway). The analysis based on quantitative research data demonstrated that PeLe-supported language classes resulted in language skill gains. The qualitative data analysis highlighted the positive effect of mobile formative assessment and of post-test activities on learner motivation and collaboration skills. This study suggests that the use of technology was effective in engaging students in enquiry-based tasks to cultivate collaboration.&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Svetlana Titova Olga Samoylenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 39 49 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-39-49 The Importance of Accuracy in the Use of Grammatical Terms and Concepts in the Description of the Distinctive Droperties of Plains Algonquian Languages https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4470 <div>The subject of this paper was inspired by my collaboration on a project involving the long-term histories of grammatical traditions led by Dr. Philomen Probert at the University of Oxford. Owing to my interest in linguistic typology and the study of the syntax-semantics-pragmatics interface in a number of languages, &nbsp;– especially Native American languages, which differ in many respects from Indo-European languages, &nbsp;–, I have observed that some languages cannot be accurately described if we use the grammatical terms and concepts commonly applied to the analysis of extensively studied languages such as English, Spanish or French, as certain grammatical properties of one language may not be equivalent to those of another and, consequently, require a different treatment. Thus, firstly, by adopting a holistic comparative perspective deriving from all areas of grammar, I aim to reveal the distinctive features that Plains Algonquian languages such as Cheyenne / Tsėhésenėstsestȯtse (Montana and Oklahoma, USA), Blackfoot / Siksiká, Kainai, and Pikani, (Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada), Arapaho / Hinóno´eitíít (Wyoming and Oklahoma, USA), and Gros Ventre / White Clay or Atsina / Aaniiih (Montana, USA) display when compared with Indo-European languages such as English, Spanish, French or German. The subsequent examination of these data will provide examples of terms and concepts that are typically used in traditional grammatical descriptions, but that do not serve to characterize the grammar of these Native American languages accurately. Finally, I will attempt to propose alternative terms and concepts that might describe the distinctive grammatical properties exhibited by these languages more adequately.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Avelino Corral Esteban ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-10-01 2017-10-01 4 2 6 38 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-3-6-38 Hancock, M. (2017). PronPack, Books 1-4. Chester: Hancock McDonald ELT ISBN 978-0-9957575-4-7 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6867 <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Alla Minasyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 73 74 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-73-74 Move Structure of Research Article Abstracts on Management: Contrastive Study (the Case of English and Russian) https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6819 <div>Although a plethora of papers have proved a seminal role of move-based genre analysis in cross-linguistic research of academic communication and EAP/ESP teaching and learning, there is a lack of respective linguistic or pedagogically motivated studies of research articles (RAs) and their parts aimed at comparing English and Russian. Using Hyland’s (2000) 5-move model, the current research seeks to determine the most obvious cross-linguistic differences in the move structure of abstracts of research articles on management for these languages. Based on a move analysis of the English- and Russian-language corpora each comprising 20 unstructured RA abstracts, the research revealed conformity of most English-language abstracts to Hyland’s model, while the Russian abstracts principally displayed a three-move structure containing ‘purpose’, ‘method’ and ‘product’, and included the ‘introduction’ and ‘conclusion’ moves only occasionally. Other significant discrepancies comprised the English-language authors’ tendency to provide precise or detailed indication of research methods and results, in contrast to their brief indication or over-generalized mentioning by Russian writers, as well as greater length of the English-language abstracts and their stricter concordance to standard move sequence than those of the Russian abstracts. Though the research was conducted on relatively small corpora and was descriptive in nature, its findings might be of interest to genre analysts as well as to L2 theorists and practitioners. &nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Zanina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 63 72 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-63-72 Creating High-Frequency, Naturalistic Opportunities to Develop Small Talk Skills in EFL Classrooms https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6818 <div>The paper is the outcome of an action research project that investigated factors that keep students from participating in classroom small talk (ST). In-class observations, surveys and students’ logs, backed by the author’s self-reflection resulted in an intervention plan which aimed to help students with their anxiety and ST apprehension. The final role plays, as well as the survey demonstrated that there was a change in how the students noticed and used the opportunities to utilize ST. Specifically, they started to see the potential of classroom talk for putting ST skills into practice. Another finding is the need to raise the students’ awareness of ST as a social and linguistic skill, to clearly establish ground rules for practising ST, and to create high-frequency, naturalistic opportunities to develop ST in class. It is argued in the paper that ST skills can be practised in the classroom beyond the purposefully designed activities, i.e. in spontaneous interactions between the teacher and the students. Such interactions may decrease the students' anxieties and reluctance to get engaged in small talk. This change would have a positive effect on their outside-the-classroom interactions in English, both in academic and work-place situations.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Irina Kuznetsova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 55 62 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-55-62 A New Training Workshop for Students’ IELTS Exam Mastering https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6817 <div>The paper is devoted to the problem of improving written communication skills in the university. It is intended to underline the importance of mastering writing skills when teaching a foreign language. Much attention is paid to teaching experience and approaches for students’ mastering of the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) exam. This article is intended to fill the gaps in methodological and pedagogical aspects of teaching description of visual information materials in English. The authors worked out and implemented a new training workshop which is aimed at teaching and practicing graph description of visual information. Based on the curriculum a new syllabus has been drafted that provides further distribution of thematic, lexical and grammatical material given the specific nature of graphical material. The authors propose a two-stage teaching approach and methodological algorithm about how to work out exam strategies and form the required exam competences. The article highlights the outcomes and the challenges that are likely to arise when implementing the approach suggested by the authors. The proposed methodology can be used as a part of general foreign language training.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Rimma Ivanova Andrey Ivanov Mariya Lyashenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 45 54 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-45-54 Relative and Conditional Clause Constructions in Ìyàgbà Dialect https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6813 <div>Relative Clause has been discussed as a subordinate clause used to qualify a noun. It narrows down the meaning of the noun it qualifies. A relative clause marker tí is inserted to accomplish the noun qualified having coded in the sentence initially in Yoruba language &nbsp;on the one hand. On the other hand, a conditional clause in Yoruba language is introduced with tí-clause by coding it in the sentence initially as well.&nbsp; The paper focuses on relative clause and conditional clause constructions in the Ìyàgbà dialect of Yoruba; a regional dialect in the north-east Yoruba. The author observes that though there are many scholarly works on the relative and conditional clause constructions in the Yoruba language, attention has not been paid to the relative and conditional clause constructions in the dialects of Yoruba. The data were collected from the informants from these dialect communities who reside in these communities and speak the dialects fluently, and the literature materials on these topics. The data presentation shall be based on descriptive analysis.&nbsp; Findings reveal that relative clause markers in the Ìyàgbà dialect are in complementary distribution; they occur in an exclusive environment. Apart from that, conditional clause markers are not attested in the dialect.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Akintoye Oluwole Samuel ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 14 18 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-14-18 More on the Categorial Status of (T)àbí in Yorùbá Grammar https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6812 <div>Yorùbá language is one of the major languages spoken in Nigeria. The term is also used to refer to the language and the native speakers. As shown in Oyetade, Yorùbá language is spoken in six states that constitute the southwest of Nigeria – Lagos, Ọ̀yọ́, Ọ̀ṣun, Ògùn, Òndó, and Èkìtì. This study investigated the Standard Yorùbá used in the Southwest Nigeria by focusing on the conjunction t(àbí). Findings reveal that there are varieties of Yorùbá language based on the location of the speakers and the state they occupy in Nigeria: Ọ̀yọ́ dialect, Ègbá dialect, Èkìtí dialect, Òndó dialect and Ọ̀wọ̀ dialect to mention a few. Previous scholarly works on Yorùbá grammar show that (t)àbí performs two functions and it is ascribed with two nomenclatures namely conjunction and polar question word. However, this present paper provides another view that is different from the views of the earlier scholars. Findings in this study reveal that t(àbí) is a conjunction in all its positions of occurrence and the researcher argues against its use as a polar question word.&nbsp; It is established in this study among other things that its occurrence at sentence initial position is as a result of ellipsis. The study also maintains that where it appears at sentence medial position, the polar question word has been deleted.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Adeoye Jelili Adewale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 6 13 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-6-13 Vowel Deletion and Insertion in Úwù https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6814 <div>Úwù is one of the many endangered languages in Nigeria.The number of its fluent speakers is believed to be less than 2000.The language is spoken in a small community known as Àyèré in Ìjùmú Local Government Area (LGA) of Kogi state. This paper describes the manifestation of vowel deletion and insertion in the language with the view of testing earlier assertions on the nature of vowel deletion and insertion in languages that are genetically related to Úwù. Apart from this, the paper is also an attempt to document these phonological phenomena (i.e. vowel deletion and insertion) before the language goes into extinction. About six hundred (600) lexical items of Úwù were collected for this research work with the aid of the 1000 word-list of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Both linear and non-linear models were adopted for analysis in this research work. Cases involving segmental phonemes were&nbsp; analyzed with the linear phonology, while cases of feature stability and feature spread wereanalyzed using the non-linear model. The paper, among other things, reveals that the pattern of vowel deletion is predictable in Úwù, auto-segments like tone (mostly high tone), nasality and labial or round features usually persist even when the vowel which bore them was deleted. Apart from this, the paper also reveals that [i] is the epenthetic vowel in Úwù, and lastly, it is argued in the paper that nouns in Úwù are virtually vowel initial.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Allison Idris Olawale ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 19 29 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-19-29 Assessment and Evaluation Techniques https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6815 <div>Assessment and evaluation have always been important; they are linked to language teaching methodology, program outcomes, language teacher competencies, language standards and second language acquisition training. They can serve many different policies and can come in different forms. Assessment and evaluation have always been seen as the responsibility of the specialists, but they have rarely been included as a component in English language teacher (ELT) training. However, the ELT field has been experiencing a major shift in assessment and evaluation with effects on teachers, and learners around the world. It has also been influenced by a major questioning of traditional forms of testing and the underlying psychometric principles of measurement in ELT. Recent studies reveal that the reconceptualization of English language assessment and evaluation provides systematic information about student learning in relation to their performance and contributes to better understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. In many ways ELT has lagged behind the rest of education in the exploration of new theories and assessment and evaluation tools, including self-assessment. This research gap was generated partly because of the lack of integration with mainstream educational theory and practice in many areas of ELT, and partly because of powerful positions of traditional English language tests. The attempt to bridge this gap has lead to the research carried out. The aim of this article is to elaborate different assessment techniques that may better address student learning needs, improve student learning and engage students in self-assessment, including the sequence of steps that could lead to self-assessment. The study shows that the techniques implemented to develop self-assessment enable students to perform well.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Baranovskaya Valentina Shaforostova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 30 38 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-30-38 The Role of Music and M-Learning in English: Vocabulary Gain Among Tertiary Students https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/6816 <div>Undoubtedly, mobile technology has started to be visible in the field of education, as can be seen by the increasing number of publications that have appeared in recent years. This can also be proven with the existence of the new term in education – M-learning. Several types of mobile devices are accessible, such as wireless laptops, portable MP3 players, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and electronic dictionaries, although smart phones and iPads are the devices that have started to attract particular attention from educators. It is also noticeable that listening to music is one of the most important features in the aforementioned mobile devices. Against this backdrop, this study explores the benefits of integrating music and mobile devices in English vocabulary learning among tertiary students in a private university in Malaysia. As this study uses quantitative approach, a pre-test and a post-test were used to obtain data to analyse whether there was a gain in students’ vocabulary knowledge after vocabulary lessons using English songs and mobile devices were conducted. In addition, a survey was used to show if students had a positive outlook in learning vocabulary through music and mobile devices. The findings of this study indicated that there was an increase in the students’ vocabulary knowledge and students were enthusiastic to learn vocabulary. Integration of music and mobile devices provide more opportunities to enhance English vocabulary learning and act as a suitable tool for learning anytime and anywhere. Therefore, educators should find innovative ways to use mobile devices to teach the future students.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Regina Dorairaju Manimekalai Jambulingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-30 2017-06-30 4 2 39 44 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-2-39-44 Story Genres in SFL: A More Flexible Taxonomy. Extrapolating a Taxonomy of Story Genres in Spanish to Story Genres in English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4411 <div>The purpose of this article is: (i) to highlight the importance of makingthe generic structure of the story genres proposed by Plum (2004) and Martin and Rose (2008) more flexible within the Systemic Functional Framework (SFL); (ii) to take up a taxonomy proposed for story genres in Spanish (Salmaso 2009, 2010 a, 2010 b, 2012 a , 2014) which grants more flexibility to the generic structure of the five genres of the narrative family (‘recounts’, ‘narratives’, ‘anecdotes’, ‘exempla’ and ‘observations’) (Plum 2004, Martin and Rose 2008); (iii) to engage in a comparative study of the generic structure of one of the story genres: ‘anecdote’.To this end, nine instances of ‘anecdotes’ wereanalyzed. All of the ‘anecdotes’ are written by native speakers of English belonging to different age and gender groups but with similar educational backgrounds (higher education). The examples are analyzed following Salmaso (2010, 2014) and comparisons are drawn between some aspects of the analysis presented herein withthe analyses done following Plum’s (2004) and Martin and Rose’s (2008) taxonomies. Results show that it is possible to extrapolate the taxonomy of story genres in Spanish to English, in particular with respect to the genre ‘anecdote’ which is the focus of this article. Furthermore, this taxonomy enriches the analysis of ‘anecdotes’ andmay be simpler and clearer for applied purposes, such as teaching.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Grisel Salmaso ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 6 22 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-6-22 Motivation of Russian Students Towards the Learning of English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4412 <div>This paper seeks to analyze the attitudes and motivation for learning English of students in the city of Surgut, in the Russian Federation. The investigation was carried out in November 2013 by means of self-completion questionnaires distributed to 30 students aged between 13 and 17 who had studied English for at least two years in private language schools although all of them had studied at least one foreign language within the Russian national education system. The students were divided into two main categories: students who are citizens of the Russian Federation who come from bilingual families (BF), such as Tatar, Bashkir, Ukrainian or others, and students from Russian monolingual families (MF). The results were analyzed from different motivational views, namely achievement, instrumental, integrative, extrinsic, and intrinsic motivations. This methodology allowed the researcher to acquire a multi-perspective vision of what impelled Russian students to learn English, what they expected of that knowledge, and whether there were differences between both groups. The results showed a high level of motivation among both genders of bilingual students and among girls from Russian monolingual families, while non-bilingual boys’ results were much more discreet. Although this research was<br>carried out in according to concrete standards of age and education, the results can increase the scientific understanding of motivation for second-language learning in contexts where that second language is not necessary, used or even known by the community in its daily life, as well as the perception of language learning by monolingual and by bilingual individuals.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Flora Komlósi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 23 33 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-23-33 Chronopotic Information of the Non-Dialogic Part of American Dramatic Text (Based On 20th Century American Plays) https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4413 <div>It is well-known that any dramatic text consists of two main blocks – the dialogic represented by actors’ speech and the non-dialogic part represented by the author’s indications (remarks). This article seeks to analyze the informative potential of the non-dialogic part of a dramatic text from the point of view of its content-related and semantic characteristics, and in its peculiarity is considered as a distinctive feature of the American linguocultural area. The topic of the content of the non-dialogic part is rendered by chronotope and anthropocentric information, which reveal the point that a dramatic text is encoded in the verbalization of extra-linguistic space/time and of a human being. Special attention is paid to spatiotemporal indications as the constituents of chronotopic information. The interior and scenery descriptions as subtypes of spatial loci are subjects of the research as well. <br>The investigation was carried out on the bases of 45 dramatic texts created by American authors of the 20th century. The research methods were component data mining, descriptive analytical method and linguistic comparison. The results showed that the distinctive feature of the American plays of the first half of the 20th century was the presence of large pieces of text and specific information in spatiotemporal indications in the non-dialogic part. Furthermore, the results affirmed that during the reading of modern American dramatic texts it might seem as though the authors forgot about the original orientation of plays for performance on stage. Some of the spatiotemporal indications were bound not to be embodied by a stage director and were available only for a reader, who in this aspect was equal to a reader of a prosaic text. As for a viewer, they are highly unlikely to perceive the author’s descriptions of the scenery in full informational content and consequently they would face a definite information gap.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Orlova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 34 44 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-34-44 Give an Envelope for the Boss/Give a Brown Envelope for the Boss- On the Semantics and Characteristics of the Metaphors for Bribe Across Cultures: Focus on Cameroon and Nigeria https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4414 <div>This paper sets out to study in a comparative perspective the semantics and the characteristics of the metaphors for bribe used by Cameroonians and Nigerians and discuss the factors which can account for the choice of these metaphors. The data for the study were collected from participant observation, novels, interviews, scientific papers and online sources and the work is discussed from the vantage point of functional grammar and cognitive linguistics. The findings of the study reveal that in order to lessen the appalling nature of the act of asking for bribes, avoid sounding ridiculous and render incomprehensible the message of asking for bribe from people who are not familiar with it, these language users utilize various types of metaphors (object metaphors, anthropomorphic metaphors, vegetative metaphors as well as zoomorphic metaphors). These metaphors display some similarities (which can be accounted for by the geographical proximity between the two countries) and differences: both utilize almost the same types of metaphors and to a lesser extent the same lexical items to refer to bribe but in different proportions (object metaphors, anthropomorphic metaphors, vegetative metaphors as well as zoomorphic metaphors). Furthermore, it is found that the values conveyed by these metaphors fall under the domains of foodstuff and drinks, fauna, human beings and body parts, mailing and transportation as well as abstract realities. Also, some of these metaphors can &nbsp;be characterized as being meliorative, pejorative, vindictive and kinesthetic. Moreover, it is found that cultural, social and economic factors can provide insights to the understanding of the choice of the values used to refer to bribe by these language users. In addition, the values used to represent bribes in these countries are a depiction of their multilingual complex nature.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Lozzi Martial Meutem Kamtchueng ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 45 57 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-45-57 Textual and Prosodic Features of an Oral Academic Text https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4434 <div>‘Discourse is the way that language – either spoken or written – is used for communicative effect in a real-world situation (Thornbury, 2005, p. 7). Thornbury considers the text as the product and the discourse – as a communicative process that involves ‘language and the record of the language that is used in this discourse, which is ‘text’ (ibid). Although presentations are generally categorized as spoken text types, an academic presentation is a compromise between spoken and written text types: on the one hand, it is given in a classroom as an oral text; on the other hand, it is thoroughly prepared as a home assignment in the form of a written text. This article focuses on the analysis of such linguistic features of students’ presentations as cohesion, coherence, and prosody. For this analysis, data were collected from 60 2nd year students of the International College of Economics and Finance (ICEF) presentations on various economic topics which were recorded and examined (the time limit for each of the presentations was 10 minutes); out of 60, 10 presentation texts were selected for auditory analysis, and thematic centers (TCs) were examined using acoustic analysis. Measurements of prosodic parameters such as pitch, intensity, and duration (rate of utterance) were obtained using the computer programs Speech Analyzer 3.0.1 and Pratt (v.4.0.53). The results of these analyses show that students’ presentations are cohesive, coherent and contain TCs, which are characterized by specific prosodic parameters that have a certain effect on the comprehension of these texts, their expressiveness and pragmatic value.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Velikaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 67 74 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-67-74 The Status of Sì in Yoruba https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4435 <div>This paper examines the syntax of sentential conjunction in the Yoruba language with the view of ascertaining the actual syntactic function of sì on which opinions have been polarized in the syntax of Yoruba grammar. This paper argues that the Yoruba language has a sentential/clausal conjunction element but its structural position is not the between the two clauses. The researcher conducted a series of structured interviews and also consulted existing works targeting the sì in compound clauses so as to generate the data for the research. The research adopts the Minimalist Program (MP) as its theoretical tool for the analyses presented in the article. MP views syntactic derivations as resulting from computational systems whose operations are based on operation Select and operation Merge. Syntactic structures are built in a par-wise fashion from bottom to top by putting two items together at a time. The research shows that there are three different sì in Yoruba occurring in seemingly similar environment but they are performing different syntactic functions. One sì denotes “emphasis” as a preverbal element; the second one denotes “consecutiveness of action” while the third one performs the function of sentential/clausal conjunction, an overt realization of the in the second clause. The overtly marked sentential/clausal conjunction also has a variant, which is an abstract realization between the two conjoined clauses.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Olabode Abimbola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 58 66 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-58-66 Comparative Study of English and Russian Phraseology: Component Theory of Identity and Difference of the Seme Organization https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4436 <div>This research is aimed at comparative study of English and Russian phraseology and semasiology. It provides new scientific approach to the solution of one of the most complex problems of comparative study of the phraseological material of different languages on the semantic level. This work is of great importance as it helps to define similarities and distinctions in the language picture of the world and reveal the peculiarities of different languages. It also allows to investigate ways of reflection of reality into language which gives the chance to study language picture of the world.Our research suggests that component analysis method, based on the criteria of identity and difference of seme organization of phraseological units, provides a more complex and in-depth analysis of the description of the semantic structure of phraseological meaning in English and Russian. Over 1750 phraseological units have been analysed from monolingual and bilingual phraseological dictionaries, English and Russian explanatory dictionaries to describe the structure of English and Russian phraseological units, identify stable semantic correlations between them. We further reveal three types of interlingual phraseological compliances / non-compliances: semantic equivalents, semantic analogues and partial semantic analogues. The results show strongly expressed quantitative prevalence of semantic analogues over semantic equivalents. The quantity of semantic analogues exceeds the quantity of semantic equivalents by 0.5%, which can be explained by the peculiarities of the development of the two remotely related languages. Our further study could address the comparative investigation of ways of the translation of phraseological units with no direct equivalents (culture-specific vocabulary) in other languages, which would enable translators to provide the interpretation which is more or less adequate and close to the original meaning.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Natalia Ilyushchenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 75 84 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-75-84 Lexical and Grammatical Means of Distancing Strategy Performed in American Political Discourse https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4437 <div>This article provided a survey of the English lexis and grammar constructions that serve to realize communicative intention of request aimed at distance enforcement in the American political discourse. The research method was the discourse analysis and the statistics data analysis and its interpretation. As a result, the most common and effective lexical and grammatical language means expressing the communicative intention of request were singled out and their choice explained. The results showed that in the course of the political discourse the opponents used those linguistic means that helped to minimize the pressure and save the face, thus having discussed topical disputable issues. Moreover the study showed the importance of further investigations in order to explain how communicative intentions will be received by its targets and thus how it may succeed (or fail) as a form of persuasion and influence.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Vera Karnyushina Alina Makhina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 85 101 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-85-101 Celebricities: Media Culture and the Phenomenology of Gadget Commodity Life. Anthony Curtis Adler. New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 2016. 264 pp. ISBN: 978-0823270804. https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4438 Olga Krasnyak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 4 2 102 105 10.17323/2411-7390-2017-3-1-102-105 The Phonetic Means of Creating a Ludic Sense in the English Nonsense Text https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/643 <div>Research into the creative use of language can be a source of new knowledge about language structure and its implementation. The paper describes segmental phonetic means involved in the formation of identical or similar acoustic images which interact in the limited semantic space of such English nonsense texts as a limerick and a literary work containing transposed sounds, syllables and words (also known as spoonerisms). This ludic interaction provides the sophisticated plane of expression putting less emphasis on the conveyed message. The analysis included the following stages: 1) identifying the cases of sound-based play in typically English pieces of creative writing; 2) describing the structure and semantics of language units which embody ludic acoustic images; 3) looking at the phenomena in question with relation to such constituents of speech act as the message, the addresser and the addressee. The findings reveal that English nonsense texts the plane of expression of which is foregrounded by the creative use of phonetic means demonstrate simultaneous presence and absence of meaning. The results show that dealing with ludic senses allows to appreciate the ludic possibilities of the English phonemic inventory as well as the metalinguistic awareness and literary appreciation of the author and the recipient.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Irina Anashkina Ekaterina Khramova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 6 13 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-6-13 Online Forums as a Mirror Reflecting the World of ESP https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/645 <div>The article presents the analysis of most frequent threads in four Internet forums to see what can be learnt about ESP teachers’ interests and understanding of the concept of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The results show that the majority of discussions revolve around the choice of materials for different types of ESP. This might suggest that forum members know very little about oral and written communicative strategies of a given profession and rely on the expertise of course books writers to provide them with such knowledge. Moreover, the analysis shows that forum members do not discuss how to teach individual language skills but how to teach different types of ESP which might indicate that there is a greater difference between teaching the same skills in two branches of ESP than there is between teaching different skills with a single type of ESP. The results also indicate that some users feel that ESP teachers should be interested in more than just linguistics, but there are those who claim that the main difference between ESP and general English lies in vocabulary. This polarity of opinions shows that no established view of ESP may exist. The analysis further suggests that the distinction between ESP and EGP is clearer to those who are more interested in learners’ professional needs. Finally, the choice of topics in the analysed threads indicates that forum members and their visitors are interested not only in ESP, but in subjects which have nothing to do with ESP.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Agnieszka Dzięcioł-Pędich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 24 30 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-24-30 Textbook Evaluation as a Means of Discovering Learners' and Teachers' Needs https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/644 <div>Needs analysis is considered an essential step which normally precedes English for Academic Purposes course design. It allows course developers to identify the tasks the target audience has to complete, and the skills they need to master. Based on the experience of the 'English for Academics' textbook writing project, the paper shows that needs analysis can be extended to the materials evaluation stage of textbook development. The piloting undertaken at this stage involved a questionnaire which required qualitative and quantitative responses from teacher and learner participants. The respondents were encouraged to evaluate different aspects of the course implementation, e.g. timing, relevance, difficulty, sequence, clarity of instructions, etc., and suggest improvements. The questionnaire was analysed which provided course developers with the opportunity to identify additional learners' needs and to explore teachers' needs and expectations, which in many respects coincided with each other. Consequently, the learning and teaching materials were restructured in accordance with the evaluation. The changes which were introduced into the textbook and the Teachers' Notes are described. It is concluded that piloting can be an instrument to expose both pedagogical and linguistic needs, thus, providing for the triangulation of the methods and reliability of the results.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Svetlana Bogolepova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 14 23 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-14-23 On Tenor and its Prosodic Markers in Rhetorical Discourse https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/646 <div>In rhetorical discourse, tenors can be formed intentionally and used as rhetorical strategies to implement the speaker's goals. The article reports on a study of the contextual category 'tenor' and its prosodic realisation in rhetorical discourse. The paper examines rhetorical, auditory and acoustic features in the samples of English academic presentations (lectures). The author argues that tenors can reflect both the relationships of the participants of a particular speech event and the relationships associated with a broader sociocultural context. Analysing tenor as a sociocultural phenomenon the author demonstrates its correlations with some specific features of British speech culture. Special attetnion is given to the role of prosody in conveying and identifying tenors. The article contains an overview of the prosodic markers of tenor: tone of voice, pitch parameters, temporal characteristics. The study of tenor and its prosodic markers contributes to a fuller understanding of the influence of contextual factors on the prosodic realisation of discourse. The observations made in the paper may be useful to develop cross-cultural communication competence and rhetorical competence of EFL students.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Freydina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 31 38 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-31-38 Temporal and Aspectual Forms of Verbs in Proposition of Commissive Speech Acts: the Case of Promise, Swear and Bet https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/647 <div>Numerous research on Speech Act Theory considers the pragmatic functions of various types of speech acts, their illocutionary forces and implementation in language, focusing either on their locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary constituents or on their taxonomies, whereas the analysis of semantic and syntactic properties of performative formula remains scarce. The present paper reports on the study of temporal perspective of commissive speech acts in the English language. Specifically, it examines temporal-aspectual forms in propositions of performative verbs of promise, swear and bet. The methodology to investigate temporal-aspectual features of verbs in proposition includes literature review and a continuous sampling method with the help of which the author analysed approximately 1,800 performative utterances containing commissive performative verbs. The results of research demonstrate that the set of temporal-aspectual forms as well as their frequency differ from one commissive under the study to another, while the syntactic structures of propositions is homogeneous. The study also established the correlation between the illocutionary force of commissive performative verbs and temporal-aspectual forms of verbs in proposition. The results of the study might have practical implications in teaching English as a foreign language in terms of grammar and sociocultural aspects.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Konstantin Khomutskii ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 39 45 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-39-45 Graph Description as an Issue in L2 Academic English Writing https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/648 <div>Young people’s interest in taking international exams such as IELTS results from student mobility and their willingness to appraise language abilities. In this paper, Academic Writing Task One of IELTS is examined. This task implies candidates comprehending graphic information and processing it in written discourse. The gap between a host of graph description tests and an insignificant number of efficient teaching methods has provided a rationale for the current study. It focuses on graph description as a cognitive, psychological and educational process and employs the analysis method in the theoretical section. Based on the action research method, drawing on 25 students’ written samples, the study has quested for peculiar language problems detrimental to processing the graph description task. The data have revealed the key pillars of successful written graph presentation: the combination of all four main skills, i.e. reading, listening, writing, and speaking; skills transfer; critical thinking and writing; the appropriate use of style; graphic literacy. It is concluded that the “constant nudging” method, a skills transfer, the use of appropriate vocabulary for describing trends alongside academic functional phrases and grammar features, the analysis of mass media information with numeric data are solutions to graph description issues. The findings have implications for preparing students for IELTS.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Valentina Khrabrova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 46 54 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-46-54 Challenges of Minority Teachers in a Western Society: Experience in Austria https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/649 <div>The aim of this reflective article is to investigate firstly, the preconception of professionalism in teaching; secondly, whether minority teacher’s identity influences their professionalism; and, thirdly, how minority teachers affect minority students, since minority teachers face real inequality in white societies. The issue of teacher professionalism has always been controversial due to the changing nature of the profession and society’s expectations of how the profession should be. There has not been an investigation regarding minority teachers in Austria. I wish to address this gap in the research by investigating the experience of a Laotian-American in a secondary school. The investigation reveals that in spite of the efforts that governments in Canada, the United States, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom have put into recruiting minority educators, minority teacher population does not keep pace with the minority student populations. Regrettably, Austrian government does not have such a recruiting scheme. This study has the potential to raise debates about minorities in the Austrian educational system and contribute to existing discussion about minority educators in white society.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nasy Inthisone Pfanner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 55 62 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-55-62 Efficiency of Individualised Resources in the Russian EFL Classroom https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/650 <div>In order to plan lessons that include effective instructional strategies, it is critical for teachers to be aware of student aptitudes, personality variables, learning strategies, interests, aspirations, and talents. This paper presents a way for Russian teachers to improve their students’ speaking abilities when learning foreign languages, called individualised resources, which are based on the concept of individualisation. Individualised resources are designed to help students to actively participate in the learning process, contribute to their productivity of learning and compensate for missing abilities when mastering foreign languages. In order to verify the effectiveness of this educational tool, qualitative and quantitative indicators were applied to a classroom-based study. Research findings illustrate how the approach enhanced the students’ speaking abilities in terms of purposefulness, richness of speech content and logical progression of speech. The results presented in the article indicate that this type of training may be sufficient to shape speaking skills when teaching English.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Olga Stognieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 63 74 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-63-74 English for Public Speaking. Ljudmila Sergeevna Chikileva. Moscow: Urite, 2016, 203 pp. ISBN: 978-5-9916-7973-2. https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1830 Elena Nikulina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-12-01 2016-12-01 4 2 75 78 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-4-75-78 The Pragmatics of Nigerian English in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Novels https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1344 <div>There are relatively few studies that have examined the pragmatization of Nigerian English in Adichie’s novelistic oeuvre. This study seeks to fill that gap by undertaking a pragmatic analysis of Nigerian English in Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Half of a Yellow Sun and Americanah in order to account for the pragmatic relation between utterances and meaning explication. The theory adopted for this study is pragmatic context. The analysis indicates that the use of English as reflected in the novels is pragmatically oriented which, by and large, helps elucidate the particular use of English in the non-literary situation in Nigeria. Also, the analysis demonstrates that the contexts, in which these Nigerian English expressions occur, significantly, draw from Nigeria’s sociocultural milieu, and the sociocultural milieu shapes the meaning or sense discourse participants squeeze out of utterances in interactive situations.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Romanus Aboh Happiness Uduk ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 6 13 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-6-13 Arthur Ransome and Dmitri Mitrokhin: Translating the Russian Folktale https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1345 <div>This paper focuses on Arthur Ransome’s and Dmitri Mitrokhin’ s collaboration in translating the Russian folktales. Old Peter’s Russian Tales (1916), Ransome’ s first serious (and sustained) success, was the translation product of his early sojourns in Russia, illustrated by Dmitri Mitrokhin. The aims of the research are threefold: (1) to explore the cooperation between the British translator and the Russian artist in translating Russian folktales as an insight into the intense British-Russian dialogues of the time; (2) to examine the interaction of the translated texts and the images in terms of the translation strategy employed, as well as the influences of the contemporaneous tastes and trends; (3) to gain a better understanding of the translator’s agency and human interaction in building an important link between the cultures and the countries. The research has required close reading of primary and secondary sources, including archival materials, as well as the textual analysis of the translated stories, the translator’s correspondence and other papers pertaining to his micro-history. These latter are used to explore the interplay of the translated text and the pictures against the background of personal, as well as wider British-Russian cultural interaction at the turn of the twentieth century.<br>Ransome’s book of over three hundred pages was illustrated with Mitrokhin’s seven full-page coloured pictures and twenty nine black and white head-pieces and end-pieces, which the author found admirable and his publishers were pleased with, though later editions would be illustrated by the other artists as well. Ransome’s translation strategy in retelling the Russian tales to his young reader at home was largely domesticating; however, he was careful to convey their culturally specific character, which was enhanced by Mitrokhin’s effort to acquaint the foreign reader with the Russian peasant world. The main result achieved is that the examination of the interplay between the text and the picture shows the specific relevance of aesthetically and emotionally powerful images in rendering the culturally distinct character of folktales. This is, therefore, a case study of the intercultural dialogue between the translator and the artist which produced an interesting interpretation of Russian folklore for the international reader and made an important contribution to the cultural links between the countries.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Bogrdanova Asya Usmanova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 14 21 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-14-21 Pragmalinguistic Features of American Presidents’ Inaugural Addresses of the Last Century (1913-2013) https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1346 <div>This paper studies the pragmalinguistic markers of the political discourse in American presidents’ inaugural addresses made from 1913 to 2013 and concentrates on the language units that reveal the potential of perlocutionary speech acts. The study analyzes the role of such domains of pragmalinguistics as deixis, reference, presupposition, cognitive structures in inaugural addresses, and their representation in speeches. The method of discourse-analysis, the method of contextual analysis, and the method of quantitative processing are used in the study. <br>The means of deixis have several functions in these speech texts, providing some extra-linguistic information and additional meaning for the utterances. Firstly, the change of deictic center conveys a certain shift of attention and redirects the addressee’s thoughts. Secondly, the means of deixis represent presuppositions, ones which members of the public are unlikely to question since these presuppositions are explicitly referred to and the information provided includes people’s background assumptions. Thirdly, personal, temporal and spatial deixes are integrated in the actualization of the most important concept found in every speech of every American president – the concept of the “American nation”: deictic forms along with nouns with evaluative implications add to the pragmatic effect of the concept reflected in speech. Fourthly, the deictic means participate in the construction of a binary that juxtaposes “us” vs. “them”, typical of political utterances in the genre of inaugural addresses. <br>A special form of reference constituting an important part of the concept of the “American nation” in inauguration addresses is precedent phenomena. Their main sources are the Bible, speeches of former politicians, texts of famous American documents. Reference to religious discourse and parts of national history familiar to everyone brings the feeling of joy to the public appealing to a basic national myth of a happy community. Thus means of deixis, presupposition and special type of reference are the characteristic of American inauguration speeches used for the purposes of strong pragmalinguistic effect. The dynamics of the usage of the precedent phenomena and other constituent parts of the concept “American nation” reflects the changes in political context of the epoch.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Anna Gabets Arnau Barios Gené ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 22 31 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-22-31 Exploring Meaning: Verb Semantics and Quality https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1347 <div>This paper examines the syntagmemic structure of verbs and their correlations with their logical-semantic quality drawing on the methods of componential analysis and morphothemic analysis proposed by A.I. Fefilov. The former approach helps us to single out the word standard semes, which are fixed in a language, whereas the latter is particularly useful in studying the nature of word semantics, its structure, and correlation with the concept and category of thought. Our research suggests that the method of morphothemic analysis provides a complex, multifaceted, in-depth analysis of the semantic structure of the verb.<br>One hypothesis raised by the study is that the verb reveals the processual peculiarities of the quality. The logical-semantic quality is fixed in verb semantics in terms of its propositional relations, which are implicit in a verb. The results show that the quality represented by a verb is concomitant as it goes together with relationality, the main component of a verb syntagmeme. Our research studied the effect of the verbal part of speech categorization on the manifestation of quality in a language. <br>The work provides new insights into the semantic structure of language units, exploring for the first time the logical and semantic qualities of verbs, which were subjected to a systematic morphothematic analysis. A further study could address the comparative investigation of the category of quality in different languages in terms of its translation. Additionally, this would enable an identification of the main trends of representing quality with the help of a verb in different languages and would distinguish a new unconventional syntagmeme that changes and modifies the category of quality in speech and consequently find out the ways in which a language determines categories of thought.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Natalie Gridina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 45 53 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-45-53 Linguistic Approaches in Teaching History of Science and Technology Courses through a Content Block on Cognitive Sciences https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1348 <div>History of Science and Technology (HST) courses are increasingly becoming part of core curriculums for undergraduate students due to an increased emphasis on scientific literacy. HST courses should aim to help students gain an understanding of the nature of science and should enable them to reflect epistemologically. The authors suggest teaching HST courses through several interchangeable content blocks, and herein, present the material and discussion topics that they believe should be implemented in a content block on cognitive sciences through a linguistic component. <br>Language has a special meaning for humankind as it indicates its unique ability in the evolutionary development and in creating a new social environment. Therefore, paying special attention to the linguistic component when teaching HST courses helps students obtain a basic level of linguistic knowledge as its interdisciplinary approaches are increased through the study of cognitive sciences such as evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and artificial intelligence.<br>In order to represent a practical meaning of linguistics in the processes of constructing social environment, the authors conducted an empirical study based on the analysis of media texts. We asked 63 sophomores majoring in social sciences and humanities, who are affiliated with the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia and the Moscow State Institute of International Relations to choose 60 media texts, both broadsheets and tabloids, on social and political content. Estimating and analyzing the surveys allowed the authors to determine students’ abilities to identify communicative strategies that were used in the media texts, to understand the role of the strategies in forming the social environment of a person or a group, and to recognize how using the tools of cognitive linguistics enhances sophisticated thinking and develops synergetic perceptions of every individual.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Olga Krasnyak Mik Fanguy Elena Tikhonova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 32 44 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-32-44 Resiliency in Education: The Case of Foreign Language Teachers https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1349 <div>The article covers the basics of resilience and the factors promoting sustainability within the field of education. With escalating demands on teachers in terms of increasing social pressures and expectations regarding quality of pedagogical provision, ’resilience’ is a topical area of research. The main objectives of the study include ascertaining how prone to professional stress are educators compared to other professionals, pointing out the areas where the major mismatches lie, and revealing the factors influencing professional adjustment in the sphere of foreign language teaching. The correlation and interdependence of resilience, emotional intelligence, social support and other individual factors have been studied using a valid sample of specialists in language teaching: resilience was considered one of the central, individual protective factors, as well as a serious prerequisite for a successful and fulfilling life. The sample of the study comprised three groups: first, senior students (future teachers); second, university academics (senior professors) and thirdly, university junior specialists. To analyze the results, statistical and correlation methods were used: different types of interdependence were indicated through regression analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis test, violin plot, and others.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Fatima Valieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 54 60 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-54-60 Developing Teacher-trainees’ Assessment Awareness in the EFL Classroom through Project-based Learning Activity https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1350 <div>Due to the Russian State Educational Standard, beginning ESL teachers should possess professional competences, including being ready to implement in their classrooms modern methods and techniques of assessing students’ achievement. However, teacher trainees are not provided with opportunities to acquire assessment skills during their learning process. Developing teacher trainees’ professional competencies during a practicum, that is, a four-week period of school-based practice teaching, may be a way to solve this problem. The key aim of the study is to investigate whether experiencing project-based learning (PBL) activity during a content-based course might raise teacher trainees’ assessment awareness and enable them to put assessment skills to practical use in their future classrooms. <br>The methodology of the present study includes developing assessment criteria for self- and peer-reflective weekly journals, developing survey questions and descriptive rubrics for grading oral presentations of PBL activity. The results of the research demonstrate that experiencing a PBL activity as a learner can trigger a deeper assessment awareness of project-based learning activities and can help develop confidence in recognizing teacher trainees’ personal strong points essential for their future professional life. By experiencing a PBL activity, teacher-trainees gain insights about its process and observe how students’ self-awareness and confidence in assessment practice are fostered through authentic tasks during a content-based course. This study therefore proposes that project-based learning activity can raise teacher-trainees’ assessment awareness and should be integrated in the teacher-training ESL course at the Astrakhan State University, Russia.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Galichkina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 61 70 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-61-70 Facebook Birthday Postings from a Language Ecology Perspective in Russian, German, American English, and French https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1351 <div>The aim of the paper is to examine Facebook postings from an ecological language perspective as a special type of discourse of “everyday life” with an orientating function, to evaluate the environmental potential of this network that influences the character of the posts, and to determine cultural differences in thinking and expressing birthday greetings on the Facebook platform.<br>The paper outlines some specific features of the Facebook environment or niche such as the reduced characters of the message, the use of abbreviations, simple structures, merging and interaction of written and spoken languages, and the use of graphical signs to convey emotions. The methodological approach was to compile a database by randomly gathering, from various Facebook timelines, 680 birthday postings in Russian, American English, German, and French. The posts were then analyzed according to three dimensions: (1) focus of the greetings on the specific day or years to come / life in general (Western vs. non-Western countries, analytical vs. holistic mindsets); (2) use of nominal structures; (3) stress/emphasis on characteristic features of a person, compliments.<br>Various psycholinguistic and cultural aspects of the verbal greetings from the timelines of Russian, American, German, and French users of the social net are singled out in terms of holistic and analytical types of critical thinking. The data collection shows that while Russians and Germans predominantly display holistic thinking, as expressed in birthday postings of a general character and wishes in general for the upcoming year or years to come, Americans and the French display analytical thinking as their birthday posts are more focused on that special day. Most birthday postings are usually short and have one similar pattern. Americans use a lot of praise and stress personal relations. French postings are very emotional often expressing love and kisses. <br>This study shows that analysis of Facebook birthday postings should be multimodal and complex, taking into account a complex interaction of a number of internal and external factors and a personal inclusion into socio-cultural interactions.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Olga Karamalak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 71 81 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-71-80 A New Type of Lexicographic Product: Thesaurus of Text Strings. Field of EFL/ESL https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1352 <div>The “Thesaurus of Text Strings: The field of EFL/ESL” (TTS) is a structured collection of text fragments extracted from various texts, both printed and digital, that deal with teaching and learning English as a foreign or second language. While the sublanguage of ELF/ESL has been vastly discussed in literature, the TTS is a radically new type of dictionary due to the nature of its constituent objects, the text strings. A text string (TS) is a lexicographic object of unique status; as such, it has not been used before. It is different from all other objects traditionally treated in dictionaries of various types, such as words, collocations, idioms, proverbs and other reproducible linguistic units. TSs have been extracted from specialized texts, they are supposed to reflect the various aspects, even the minute ones, of the referential situations presented in the texts. The TSs in the Thesaurus are arranged mostly according to the conceptual structure of the Foreign Languages Teaching Methodology (a deductive logical procedure, ‘head – bottom’), but on the lower, more concrete, levels of analysis the TSs have to be grouped following the opposite logical direction, ‘bottom – up’ as the Teaching Methodology concepts prove to be too general to differentiate between finer meaning distinctions of numerous TSs. The TTS supplies a considerable amount of carefully structured professional information in language form. It is aimed primarily at teachers of English who are not native speakers of the language and who wish to make their professional communication in English more authentic. It can also be used in classroom activities with students who are preparing for teaching careers. Thus, a conclusion may be justified that the TTS has both the theoretical significance for lexicography and the practical value as a good professional teaching material. The TTS may also be meaningfully considered against the background of today’s Corpus Linguistics. Though not a ‘true’ corpus per se, it has certain features that are essentially similar to those of contemporary linguistic corpora.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Iosif Keselman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-09-01 2016-09-01 4 2 82 89 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-3-82-89 A Comparative Analysis of Temporal Structure of English Poetic Texts for Adults and Children https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1353 <div>Poetry has always been under the focus of scholars’ attention, though the problem of performing a comparative analysis of children’s and adults’ poetry has not received enough attention yet. The study undertaken is aimed to fill in this gap and provide the analysis of English poetry for adults and children with the attempt to identify some grammatical peculiarities of the corresponding poetic texts. The scope of the texts for examination is limited to English poetry of the nineteenth – twentieth centuries focused on the animal theme. The analysis of the temporal structure of the texts selected was based on the method elaborated by Ludmila Nozdrina in her work “Poetics of grammar categories” (2004). The results of the study have proved the hypothesis stated: there are some differences in temporal structuring of the nineteenth–twentieth century poetic English texts focused on the animal theme. The main difference lies in targeting the poem: whether it appeals to adults or children. The current study contains quantitative information on the usage of certain grammatical phenomena within the texts analyzed, and the attempts of their interpretations. Consequently, the study might be of particular interest for those scholars who do research on differentiating grammatical peculiarities of poetry in general and drawing differences between children’s and adults’ poetry, in particular.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nataliya Denisova Dinara Yusipova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 6 13 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-6-13 Shakespearean Charactonyms in Translations into Russian https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1354 <div>Despite a long tradition of translating Shakespeare’s works into Russian, names as a stylistic device have been underestimated by scholars. The study deals with the space or environment of characteristic names (charactonyms) and its rendering into Russian in the works Henry IV, Part II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The material for the research is a dozen translations into Russian done in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries including annotated editions which may show additional interpretations of the names. Comparing the puns based on names and their equivalents as a method shows how to identify overlapping approaches to translating stylistic devices involving charactonyms. The analysis of the translations reveals a variety of ways to render names, in particular within text, which is rare, and the application of commentaries in annotated editions. This research demonstrates that some equivalents of names have been repeated in several translations and hence the translators relied on the best practice instead of suggesting their own solutions. The research also shows the strategies and patterns employed by Russian translators and writers, which may be a good resource for literary translators.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Alexander Kalashnikov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 14 22 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-14-22 Perceptions and Use of English by Secondary School Students From Central Asia https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1355 <div>After almost two centuries of functioning almost exclusively through the medium of Russian, the governments of the now-independent Kyrgyzstan are trying to implement the knowledge of English among the population as an auxiliary tool of interaction with the rest of the world. Nevertheless, and despite the huge amount of money invested in English education, there is a lack of studies about the attitudes of the Kyrgyzstani students toward this language and the use that they intend to do of it. This paper analyses the attitudes toward the learning and use of English by Kyrgyzstani secondary-school students from four educational models in two regions of the country. A questionnaire given to 182 students from different local and foreign ethnic and language backgrounds was used to collect data. The results of the research show different approaches depending on the location of the schools and the educational program followed. For most students English may be a good asset but very few consider it a language that can be used in contexts other than the classroom.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Flora Komlósi Siarl Ferdinand ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 23 32 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-23-32 The Problems of Russian-Speaking Students of non-Ninguistic Specializations in CAE Speaking. Test: Analysis of Teaching Experience https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1356 <div>Today Russian undergraduate students of non-linguistic specializations aspiring to careers in different spheres succeed in acquiring Certificates in Advanced English. Nevertheless, the candidates state that they experience the most serious difficulties while sitting the Speaking Test of the CAE exam as they lack oral language skills. The researched literature does not consider Russian students’ predicaments purposely and gives a broad overview of the main students’ concerns. This study is an attempt to explore the particular Russian students’ problems of forming oral language skills arising in the process of their training for the Speaking Test and to work out the ways of their remedies. Qualitative methods have allowed finding out the highly specific nature of individual experience. The methods used in the study also included an open-ended language learning questionnaire and a survey to support the assessment of the received data. The results indicate that there are quite a number of pedagogical and educational variables that should be permanently trained and developed as they can influence students’ success.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Galina Levitskaya Elizaveta Levitskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 33 42 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-33-42 On the Question of the Semiotic Typology of Signs https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1359 <div>he article is in the context of linguistic and semiotic studies related to theoretical issues of base units’ typology, in particular, theoretical linguistics and “pure” semiotics. Sign is one of the basic units of linguistics and semiotics. The way of understanding the nature and structure of the sign essentially influences the nature of almost all studies. The depth, consistency and completeness of perception of signs are reflected in the currently existing classifications of signs. The article fills in a gap in the perception of the sign variety nature in the semiotic and linguistic understanding. It provides a tool for the correct interpretation of a large body of facts related to the secondary use of proper names in the specific function and precedential units in a broad context. The analysis of the actual texts indicates that the current classifications of signs do not reflect in their entirety all the signs which actually exist and function in the space of language and culture. Beyond the limits proposed by these classification schemes are left the phenomena of sufficient frequency. The article based on the appositive and distribution methods describes and analyzes the type of signs that has not been previously perceived by researchers as an independent one and has not been studied at all. This sign is called a bifocal sign and it is consistently described in terms of its specific features which do not allow mixing it with other types of signs. The results show that an adequate interpretation of any text which includes a bifocal sign is impossible without taking into account the specificity of this sign.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Alexander Shuneyko Olga Chibisova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 43 51 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-43-51 Strategic Hedging: A Comparative Study of Methods, Results and Discussion (and Conclusion) Sections of Research Articles in English and Russian https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1361 <div>A great deal of research has established the importance of hedging and its cross-linguistic differences for intercultural academic communication and, consequently, for L2 EAP/ESP teaching and learning. However, strategic hedging seen as discourse-based hedging strategies related to the rhetorical structure of research papers seems to be underexplored. The article reports on a mainly descriptive study of its cross-linguistic variation in the Methods, Results and Discussion (and Conclusion) sections of English-medium and Russian-medium research articles in the field of management and marketing. Based on D. Koutsantoni’s taxonomy, this paper analyzes 20 published articles to compare the types, frequencies and reveal some tendencies of using strategic hedges in both languages. The research detects the same two major categories of strategic hedges (agreement with other research and limitations) for both languages, with the same further subcategorization for each of them. The findings reveal differences between the languages in the overall frequencies of strategic hedges and the frequencies of their subtypes, as well as in tendencies of their usage including Russian writers’ preference for referring to general opinion, implicit ways of expressing limitations and giving one explanation for obscure results, as compared to English writers. The research outcomes indicate that cross-linguistic variation of strategic hedging in English-medium and Russian-medium research articles is an important feature to be taken into account in EAP/ESP teaching and learning.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Zanina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 52 60 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-52-60 Polysemy in Linguistic Terminological Systems Based on the Analysis of French Linguistic Terms https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1362 <div>The article reports on the features of polysemy in French terminological systems of linguistics at inter-system and intra-system levels. The existing studies concerning terminological semantics allow pointing out two aspects of the term structure: a semantic structure representing a complex of meanings, and a structure of the terminological meaning representing a complex of semes. The first aspect supposes the analysis of terminological polysemy regarded as a negative characteristic of terms. According to the second aspect some particularities of denotative and significative levels and their correlation to scientific concepts can be analyzed. In the given study the component analysis of the definitions of French terms – such as ‘sémantème’, ‘mot’ and ‘signe’ – reveals different types of polysemy and terminological variation. The analysis of semantic structures of these terms shows that terminological deviations are caused by objective differences at significative and denotative levels of the meaning as well as by the subjective use of occasional contexts of terms in linguistic research. The suggested results allow constructing a new classification of meaning relations of linguistic terms. Each type of relations is correlated to different elements of the term structure. The hierarchy of these elements is embodied into an abstract model that can be applied for the analysis of any term of the modern linguistic terminology.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Denis Zolotukhin ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 61 67 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-61-67 Systemic Genesis Approach in Psychology https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1372 <div>This article analyses V.D. Shadrikov’s scientific work in the field of psychology. V.D. Shadrikov is Doctor of Psychology, Professor, and Fellow of the Russian Academy of Education. The article briefly covers his fundamental publications on activity, abilities, and the human inner world, examining the issues raised in his publications in the context of the evolution of educational theory and methodology. Shadrikov develops the methodology of systemic genesis approach in psychology, demonstrating that the systemic genesis paradigm opens new aspects in fundamental and applied psychology. This paradigm provides an opportunity to carry out research on a new level.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Galina Suvorova Tatiana Baranovskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-06-01 2016-06-01 4 2 68 77 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-2-68-77 Learning From Collaborative Teacher Development in an EAP/ESP Context https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1360 <div>‘Collaborative teacher development is an increasingly common kind of teacher development found in a wide range of language teaching contexts’. Teachers can collaborate with other teachers in writing materials, books, doing research, and analysing observed lessons. Even the format and the content of a teaching journal can be developed in cooperation with other colleagues. The article reports on collaborative teacher development of English language teachers at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) in Moscow, Russia. The study used a survey to investigate needs for teacher development at NRU HSE. Findings reveal that not all teachers practise self-observation; many teachers believe that feedback must be personal; the majority of teachers find peer observation subjective; almost all teachers have teaching journals but their understanding of what a teaching journal is seems to be erroneous. These results indicate that without a clear understanding of the listed above issues and their implementation in a given context professional development can hardly be possible. The author analyses the results of this research and makes suggestions about teacher development as a continuous and collaborative process.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Velikaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 72 78 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-72-78 The Role of English as a Medium of Instruction in Reshaping Bahraini Senior Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Roles as Middle Leadership in their Schools (An Exploratory Study) https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1364 <div>This paper investigates the role English plays as the medium of instruction in reshaping Bahraini senior teachers’ perceptions about their actual role in their schools during their professional development program at the Bahrain Teachers College at the University of Bahrain. The data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion with an opportunity sample of the senior teachers who recently graduated from the program. The quantitative findings show that using English played a significant role in motivating the participants to form positive attitudes towards their professional development program while the qualitative data reveal how the target language participated in enabling those teachers reshape their perceptions about certain professional practices and assisted them in gaining new skills to improve the overall performance of their teachers in school. The study concludes with implications of how using English as the main medium of instruction facilitates conceptual change in professional development programs.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Hasan Al-Wadi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 6 15 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-6-15 Taking a MOOC: Socio-cultural Aspects of Virtual Interaction In a Multicultural Learning Community https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1365 <div>Featuring different approaches to Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) among education policy makers, theorists and practitioners in the field and highlighting an increasing popularity of this educational phenomenon worldwide, the article provides a brief record of MOOCs’ success at Harvard University and the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) making the authors move gradually towards the main focus of this paper – socio-cultural problems, that Russian students frequently face while taking a MOOC in English. The survey described in the article revealed that HSE students establishing online communication with their peers from other countries often complain about sudden, unexpected communication breakdowns that they find difficult to explain and that are likely to occur due to the socio-cultural differences existing between communication partners in a multicultural learning community. The results of the survey presented in the article indicate that there is an urgent need to find effective ways to increase the students’ level of socio-cultural competence that would allow them to communicate successfully in a new virtual learning environment.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Galina Pavlovskaya Molly Perkins ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 16 21 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-16-21 Developing Chemistry Students’ Study Skills through Integration of Visual Organizers in Teaching ESP https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1366 <div>This study is aimed at development chemistry students’ study skills through integration of visual organizers (VOs) in teaching English for Special Purposes (ESP). The research specifically examined the students’ attitude toward the chemistry content of English classes and the achievement of two groups of 54 students under study. The results of the study indicated that there is a significant difference between the level of study skills in dealing with chemistry in English of the students in the experimental group before and after the experiment. The result of students’ perception about visual organizers, as a strategy and approach to teaching English through chemistry, highlighted the rаtionale in this undertaking. All communicative activities and presentations used by the teacher in the class incorporating visual organizers in identified formats such word webbing, web diagram, flowcharts, concept maps, Venn diagram and pictorial graphics obtained a positive perception of chemistry information in English. Performance, on the other hand, indicated the VO’s effectiveness in facilitating the learning of English and study skills development. This analysis implied that the experimental group performed significantly better than their peers in the control group. Facilitating English learning through chemistry content can be made through integrating visual organizers that help develop students’ study skills. Hence, the use of visual organizers effect changes in learning chemistry content for the better. Visual organizers help students perform better and improve their attitude toward learning English for professional communication.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Anastasia Sitnikova Olga Simonova Mrityunjoy Kar ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 22 29 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-22-29 The Influence of Self-editing on Micro Skills Development in Academic Writing in English as a Second Language https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1367 <div>Self-editing skills are extremely important in foreign language learning; without them university students tend not to write appropriately in academic contexts. These skills are, however, often less developed in school graduates and it is thus essential to understand the challenges faced by university students. The present study was conducted to answer the research question: whether self-editing as a final component of written production can boost the writing micro skills of learners. It analyzes English-language essays written by 50 second-year ESL students in the Faculty of Economics at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, and reports on the most frequent errors committed in their formal writing. The aim of this study is to focus on the stage of self-editing and identify the role of self-editing in micro skills development. Findings reveal that students are most often weak at producing coherent and cohesive paragraphs; they also lack appropriate argumentation and are often inaccurate in using grammatical structures and lexis. Results also suggest, however, that L2 writing students can improve their own writing by transferring micro skills they learn when editing texts. The present study may contribute to teachers’ views on developing micro skills of student writers.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Pospelova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 30 38 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-30-38 The Modern Educational Domain: Prerequisites and Prospects for Individual Learning Path Development https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1368 <div>This article considers the prerequisites and perspectives of individual learning path (ILP) development in the framework of a student-centered educational paradigm; it defines the rationale of ILP and examines the introduction of project learning technology (PLT) into ILP modeling in higher educational institutions. We claim that identification of students’ individual features and compliance with their requirements becomes feasible via the integration of project learning technology into the educational process with relevant pedagogical and computer support. The special emphasis is put on the idea that ILP framing is aimed at enhancing students’ autonomy and responsibility for their education, fostering cooperation skills in a close dialogue with other participants in out-of-class projects and teachers. In this scenario an individualized approach is to be implemented in a harmonious solidarity with principles of cooperation and collaboration. <br>To verify the above-mentioned ideas we conducted an experiment based on cognitive, diagnostic and empirical methods. Two groups of students participated in our research project at the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics in September – November 2015. They are second-year undergraduate students majoring in Economics and studying English as a second language. We designed individual study routes (ISR) for each student and handed them out. The ISR contained progress steps of the project, a set of assignments and deadlines for project submission. The students were provided with opportunity to play an active role devising and altering an ISR. <br>Research findings show that ILP modeling boosts student’s motivation to learn English as a second language, enables students’ reflexive skills, identifies their individual features while simultaneously developing cooperation and collaboration skills.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Katerina Stepanenko Liya Torosyan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 39 47 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-39-47 Constructions Expressing Inaccurate Quantity: Functions and Status in Modern English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1369 <div>The article reviews lexical units expressing evaluative (inaccurate and/or unspecified) measurement in Modern English. The study reveals that this measurement, located on the periphery of scientific and traditional metric systems, has great significance for operational partitioning and measuring different kinds of objects in the everyday life of native English speakers. To date, there have been no detailed descriptions of lexical representations for evaluative measurement in the English language since existing papers do not approach this issue systematically. The present article, based on the British National Corpus and English dictionaries, as well as on extracts from modern American fiction, is the result of an analysis and systematization of the constructions, or patterns, expressing inaccurate and unspecified quantities in Modern English. In particular, the article provides a list of such constructions and their corresponding classifications based on their functions as specific classifiers. It also studies the structure of each type distinguished, the semantics of their components and their combinatory specificities. The analysis determines the status of these constructions in the paradigm of the category of measure in relation to the other language means of the given conceptual category, with which the constructions in question form the corresponding functional-semantic field. The results of the conducted research reveal how the “human factor” manifests itself in the English-language culture when expressing quantity evaluation of the outward things.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nina Zhukova Ludmila Petrochenko ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 48 55 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-48-55 Discourse Elements in English Academic Discourse https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1370 <div>This paper presents a study of discourse elements in spoken academic discourse – a lecture – and identifies their specificities. The study seeks to identify discourse elements in a wide body of research material; to study structural, functional and pragmatic features of discourse elements in terms of the implementation of the intentions of the speaker; to identify from the auditory analysis any prosodic features of discourse elements. Discourse elements are specifically defined from the point of view of their pragmatics: the intention of the speaker influences the language of the lecture and the way in which ideas are connected with words. <br>The study on discourse elements included several stages. Research material consisted of audio recordings of Philology lectures to students studying English as a foreign language by three native speakers of English (General American standard of pronunciation), all of whom are professors at American colleges and universities. In total, 6 lectures were recorded; they formed a wide body of research material lasting 7 hours 33 minutes. This wide body of research material consisted of 2 306 linguistic facts, i.e. discourse elements in context. From these, 150 fragments containing various discourse elements were then chosen to form a narrow body of research material lasting 40 minutes. <br>The phonetic research consisted of auditory analysis: dividing the fragments of discourses into syntagms; defining the boundaries of syntagms; specifying pitch movement, tone level and type of scale; using perceptual gradations of each prosodic feature, etc. Prosodic marking was carried out in accordance with the method of notation adopted at the Department of English Phonetics at Moscow State Teacher Training University (1997). Scaling enabled the classification and sorting of all the studied elements (discourse elements). The authors used the following types of scales: nominative, ordinal and interval. Structural analysis proved that discourse elements have different structure and may be one-word elements and predicative phrases S+P incorporated into the structure of the academic discourse. All discourse elements can be divided into two large groups – connecting elements (connectors) and pragmatic elements. <br>The results of the research show that the studied elements differ structurally and can perform various functions. The functions of the discourse elements, their structure, intentions of the speaker and also their position in the phrase determine their prosodic features</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Yulia Chubarova Natalia Rezepova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 56 64 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-56-64 Historical and Symbolic Aspects of Linguistic Representation of the World https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1371 <div>The article is an attempt to offer a theoretical understanding of the notion of a “Linguistic world-image” (LWI) within symbolic contexts as represented in the current literature, define the symbol’s features, its influence on LWI in historic perspective, and investigate its functioning within idioms or metaphors. We have undertaken the review of previous LWI investigations and, as the methodological basis of our research, we have used ethno-semantic and linguistic-philosophical approaches to language; specifically, the method of multiple etymology, introduced by V. N. Toporov and developed by M.M. Makovsky, which permitted us to identify the correlation of LWI with linguistic signs as a carrier of symbolic meaning. It should be noted that studying symbolic language properties and linguistic signs within the linguistic world-image, which were not taken into account before, is conductive to a more profound comprehension of the correlation between language, culture, and mutual understanding index in the intercultural communication process.<br>The LWI concept is considered as a subjective-objective dynamic multilevel construct, which presents its primary features through a lexical-semantic language system within a world and national culture formed as a result of the reflection of sensorial perception, facts, understanding and estimation of the objective phenomena in national linguistic consciousness, in the experience of correlation of language concepts, images and symbols throughout the cultural historical development of the language. Therefore, two approaches to studying LWI are evident - cognitive and cultural-philosophical - which are not so much conflicting as mutually reinforcing.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Margarita Ganyushina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2016-03-01 2016-03-01 4 2 65 71 10.17323/2411-7390-2016-2-1-65-71 ESP in Polish Tertiary Language Courses – in Search of Definition https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1373 <div>In the Polish educational system it is mainly institutions of higher education that conduct English for Specific Purpose (ESP) courses, partly because of the regulations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which stipulate that a B.A. graduate should know a foreign language at least at the B2 level of CEFR and its specialized variety1. This article presents an analysis of Polish ministerial and faculty documents such as ministerial teaching standards and faculty learning outcomes that influence the teaching of ESP at tertiary level in Poland. It also presents an analysis of ESP syllabi from eight higher education institutions published at Internet websites of faculties of economics and management. The aim of the analysis was to see how ministerial and faculty documents define ESP and what type of ESP students of economics and management learn and what are the main course materials for syllabus design for students of economics, management and their various specializations. All the documents and syllabi were subject to qualitative analysis which showed that neither teaching standards nor faculty learning outcomes provide a clear indication of what language for professional or specific purposes is supposed to be. Furthermore, it showed that while teaching students of economics and management, language teachers reach for business English course books which offer a general set of topics and skills, and use one and the same course books with students of different specialties. This shows that the lack of clear guidelines from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education makes it difficult for teachers to provide ESP courses beyond a certain level of generality.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Agnieszka Dzięcioł-Pędich ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 6 14 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-6-14 Graphic and Functional Algorithms of Sequence of Tenses in English Grammar for the Effective Education and Automated Systems of Text Synthesis and Editing https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1374 <div>The article describes the optimal graphic language of presenting and studying English grammar using information technology. Among the studies on the use of graphics in teaching a&nbsp;foreign language, there are mostly descriptions of static objects. The authors propose to use a&nbsp;universal graphic language for describing processes. The authors suggest theoretical foundations of visualization of the English grammar rules using time-sequential conversion scale in the sequence of tenses transformation. The research question is the method of archiving knowledge of English grammar to simplify and speed up the memorization and to increase the volume of information memorized. To achieve this goal, the authors used a graphic algorithmization of the English grammar and visualization of grammar rules, as well as the comparative monitoring of the knowledge gained. As part of research, a series of experiments on the visualization of the rules of sequence of tenses were conducted in student groups. The research showed that a simple language of symbols facilitates and accelerates the memorization of English grammar. Systematic tabulation of grammar rules, where each verb tense gets its finished graphic image, becomes easy to understand and quick to memorize. The application of the presented approach is the following: effective linguistic education, local and global automatic synthesis system and text editing.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Lyudmila Kozlova Nadejda Trubochkina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 15 25 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-15-25 Semantic and Cognitive Structure of Emotion States Love, Lust, Infatuation, Passion https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1375 <div>Conceptualization of emotions, especially those which are neither universal nor elementary, is a contested area of cognitive linguistic research. The present paper investigated the semantic and conceptual structure of four emotion states of the thematic field ‘romantic relationship’: love, lust, infatuation, and passion. The specific questions asked in the paper are as follows. First, what are the similarities and dissimilarities between these emotion states? Second, in what way does the conceptualization presented in dictionaries depart from conceptualization that emerges through corpus investigation? Finally, which of the conceptual metaphors posited for emotion concepts by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson are most entrenched in the collective and individual consciousness of speakers of English? To answer these questions, the advantages of four methods were tapped into: introspection, definitional analysis, a native speaker survey and corpus study. Findings reveal that dictionary definitions of love, lust, infatuation, and passion offer an impoverished, if credible, insight into the conceptual structure of these emotions. Results are suggestive of some specific conceptual elements which should be taken account of in a classroom setting by language instructors and L2 learners and indicate which appropriate collocations are to be taken heed of by dictionary compilers.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nataliya Lavrova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 26 36 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-26-36 The Backyard of EFL Teaching: Issues Behind L1 Prosodic Interference in Russian English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1376 <div>Modern EFL teaching in Russia pays much attention to variations in the cultural schemata represented by students’ L1 and the target language, as well as behavioral patterns of their speakers. However, teaching practitioners scarcely address certain issues of Russian L1 prosodic interference that cause attitudinal confusion on the part of native English speakers. The study explores the wrong pragmatic effects created in English due to the transfer of Russian intonation contours and the reasons behind the failure of Russian EFL teachers to address the issue. Specifically, it investigates English speakers’ negative perceptions of Russian L1 intonation and examines Russian teachers’ practices and beliefs with regard to the place of intonation in a language classroom. The paper draws on findings from recent studies on effects of Russian L1 prosodic features in English and the results obtained from a survey conducted by the author among 29 Russian EFL teachers. The paper argues that whereas L1 intonation interference seriously affects learners’ cultural image, its role in EFL teaching is significantly undervalued as compared to that of grammar and vocabulary. It concludes by suggesting practical ways to facilitate intonation teaching in a Russian EFL classroom.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Ekaterina Popkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 37 44 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-37-44 The Development of Stance-taking Strategies in L2 Students’ Academic Essays: the Case of a Content-based Russian-American Teleconference Course https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1377 <div>Due to internationalization of education, students in the majority of leading Russian universities are increasingly likely to use English as a medium of instruction. At the same time, they are not offered preparatory courses in English academic writing. As a result, students are able to develop their academic writing skills mainly while undertaking content-based courses. Recent research indicates that one of the major concerns for novice writers is to be able to express their stance. The key aim of the study is to show that implementing some methods of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) into a content-based course might improve students’ ability to take a stance in their writing. The paper presents the analysis of 45 essays written in English by L2 novice writers during a teleconference course taught to a group of Russian and American students. The study employs a comparative linguistic analysis of some stance markers (pronoun ‘I’, reporting verbs, epistemic modal and evidential expressions) used in students’ essays written at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the course. The results suggest that the students’ ability to take a stance might be developed through the integration into the course of some elements of EAP teaching.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Irina Shchemeleva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 45 53 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-45-53 Successful ESL Writing for Publication: The Role of Writers’ Autonomy Linguistic Competence and L1/L2 Critical Reading Skills https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1378 <div>The main aim of the research is to examine professional L1 (Russian)/L2 (English) writing experiences among staff members of one Russian research-intensive university as well as to provide more insights into the universal pedagogies of professional writing. The empirical paper focuses on assessing writers’ ability to reflect upon linguistic competence, independent L1/L2 writing skills and L1/L2 critical reading issues which help multilingual scholars position themselves as successful writers in L1 and L2. Text-based semi-structured interviews aimed at measuring self-assessed overall writers’ autonomy in L1/L2, linguistic competence and critical reading skills in their L1/L2 writing experience were conducted. The key findings include L1/L2 writing features and support the idea that successful professional and autonomous writing seems to be closely related to a set of one’s metalinguistic competences, defined in this paper as a critical reading competence, once a certain level of L2 proficiency has been achieved. The paper concludes with some pedagogical implications in the field of writing for publication.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Natalia Smirnova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 54 62 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-54-62 Implementing Peer Assessment in a Russian University ESP Classroom https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1379 <div>In order to develop the skills and competences required in a professional environment, university students have to reflect on their own role in the learning process. The traditional methods of assessment do not assess reflective thinking, critical thinking, self-evaluation and peer evaluation. Peer assessment may be a way to solve this problem. In this paper, it is researched how peer assessment could be applied to higher education and the effect of using this form of assessment on the quality of learning. The methodology to investigate the effect of peer assessment as a part of the learning process includes literature observation, case study, developing protocols and marking criteria rules for peer assessment, examples of peer assessment strategies and activities. The results of the research demonstrate that peer assessment methods of either written or oral performance can trigger a deeper involvement of students both in the learning and in the assessment process, keep motivation up and develop some qualities essential for future professional life. Therefor peer assessment could be effectively integrated in the course of ESP at the Moscow Higher School of Economics.&nbsp;</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Olga Stognieva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 63 73 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-63-73 Fostering Positive Transfer through Metalinguistic Awareness: A Case for Parallel Instruction of Synonyms in L1 and L2 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1380 <div>Numerous studies on transfer in&nbsp;language learning focus on the nature of transfer, its mechanisms, and its impact on language proficiency and literacy. The&nbsp;majority of implications for teaching methods concern interpretive skills such as reading, whereas the data on effective transfer strategies related to productive skills such as speaking are scarce. This study focuses on speech development based on metacognitive knowledge built into L1 (Russian) as a&nbsp;tool for fostering transfer regarding language universals into L2 (English). An&nbsp;intervention experiment involving elementary school students was based on parallel instruction of synonyms as explicit metalinguistic knowledge. The&nbsp;findings show that, in&nbsp;contrast to the control group, participants from the experiment group displayed a&nbsp;significantly higher gain in&nbsp;skills regarding synonyms in&nbsp;L2, even though metacognitive knowledge of the subject was presented in&nbsp;L1. The&nbsp;results of the study suggest that metalinguistic awareness can facilitate transfer and its instruction can be an&nbsp;effective teaching strategy in&nbsp;speech development in&nbsp;early childhood education.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Ekaterina Talalakina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 74 80 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-74-80 External Influences on English: From its Beginnings to the Renaissance. D. Gary Miller. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 252 pp. ISBN: 9780199654260 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1381 Maria Volkonskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-12-01 2015-12-01 4 2 81 84 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-4-81-84 Slovak Language of Roma Children: Mother Tongue or Second Language https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1382 <div>This paper presents a study conducted with 40 Roma children from Slovakia, aged between 4-8 years, who are speakers of an ethnolect learned from their parents, but which in Slovak society is not considered to be a “good Slovak language”. Diagnostic tests in the official Slovak language were administered to the children in order to determine how well they know the complex grammatical categories of official Slovak: wh-questions, wh-complements and passive verbs. One hypothesis raised by the study is that the Roma children follow the normal linguistic development path of other children and, by the age of 5, already know the deep structure of complex sentences in Slovak. The results show that although the Roma children grow up with a particular variety of the Slovak language that is an ethnolect, they are able to comprehend and produce deep linguistic structures of Slovak, which serves for them as a mother tongue.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Hristo Kyuchukov ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 6 11 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-6-11 Sophisticated Thinking: Higher Order Thinking Skills https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1383 <div>The information-based society determines that the key factor to achieve success is the development of sophisticated thinking. That said, the thinking process cannot be just a&nbsp;mere imitation of cognitive work, since the digital age requires the authentic skills of working with a&nbsp;flow of information that is being constantly updated. <br>This paper deals with the last stage of the study devoted to the development of sophisticated thinking. It&nbsp;focuses on&nbsp;the enhancement of higher order thinking skills. We claim that the cognitive processes should be based on&nbsp;three phases: development of disposition towards both thinking process and processed information; development of lower order thinking skills which serves as&nbsp;an&nbsp;indispensable basis for developing higher order thinking skills; and development of higher order thinking skills. The&nbsp;omission or&nbsp;reordering of any of these phases may result in&nbsp;significant deterioration of the obtained results. The&nbsp;special emphasis is put on&nbsp;the idea that higher order thinking skills are more effectively developed when lower order thinking skills have already been interiorized. Furthermore, the development of disposition is regarded as&nbsp;the cornerstone of the development of sophisticated thinking in&nbsp;general. Also, due to its defining feature of polysemy, a&nbsp;literary text is considered to be the most appropriate basis for enhancing students’ thinking skills. <br>For the purpose of verifying the theoretical ideas, a&nbsp;qualitative study has been conducted. The&nbsp;two groups of students, who participated in&nbsp;the first and second stages (three-month cycle each) of our project, continue to be involved in&nbsp;this one. They are second-year bachelor students of the Higher School of Economics who are studying English as&nbsp;a&nbsp;second language. On&nbsp;the basis of the ideas expressed by&nbsp;B.&nbsp;Bloom about the division between lower and higher order thinking skills and by&nbsp;J.&nbsp;Mezirow about transformative learning we designed tasks to enhance higher order thinking skills. These tasks were related to the short stories written by&nbsp;D. Barthelme and printed as&nbsp;a&nbsp;collection, Sixty Stories. To teach the students of both groups (control and experimental), the text-based approach with special techniques to measure the students’ level of understanding and the ability to apply the given information was used. The&nbsp;results of the experiment indicated that the students of both groups made headway in&nbsp;their application of thinking skills. However, the students of the experimental group demonstrated a&nbsp;more significant shift due to the fact that the development of their disposition towards cognitive processes and processed information had been specifically targeted over the course of the first and second stages of the project. Another important outcome of the study was that the participants’ frame of reference was extended which allows us to speculate that the development of sophisticated thinking may result in&nbsp;the change of a&nbsp;person’s interpretation of socio-cultural situation. Hence, a&nbsp;further in-depth study of the issue should be conducted.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Tikhonova Natalia Kudinova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 12 23 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-12-23 Research on the Business English Training Model within MBA Program https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1384 <div>The paper presents a&nbsp;brief summary of the research on&nbsp;the Business English training model within MBA program students.<br>This study is devoted to the problem of developing a&nbsp;professional foreign language communicative competency of MBA program participants. A&nbsp;particular feature of additional MBA qualification is its international status which presupposes that its graduates (mid-level and top managers) should realize their professional tasks in&nbsp;a&nbsp;foreign language.<br>The analysis of literary works follows in&nbsp;order to find out if activity and competency-based approaches are chosen as&nbsp;instructional bases for developing the model of a&nbsp;business foreign language training that can ensure building a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency of the MBA program participants.<br>The result of the study is the model of a&nbsp;business foreign language training that guarantees the development of a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency within the process of obtaining additional professional MBA qualification and that includes the following structural components: learning objective, content, a&nbsp;set of forms of organizing the learning process and technological description of each of the five modules. <br>The next part of the paper suggests the result of the research based on&nbsp;testing of the business foreign language training model that guarantees the development of a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency when achieving additional professional MAS qualification including a&nbsp;description of the process and the results of assessing the developed dyadic model.<br>The testing consisted of summative and formative assessment and was carried out in&nbsp;the the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in&nbsp;several stages (from 1999 to 2007 and then again from 2010 to 2014). When analyzing the results of assessing the dyadic model both the data obtained in&nbsp;control groups (teaching based on&nbsp;the traditional system) and in&nbsp;experimental groups (teaching based on&nbsp;the developed model) were compared.<br>On the basis of the studies the conclusion was made that business English language training, aimed at&nbsp;the development of professional foreign communicative competence of MBA students, organized in&nbsp;accordance with our didactic model, can achieve the goal of real-verbal communication in&nbsp;English in&nbsp;professional environment (business English should become a&nbsp;tool for solving professional problems), and fully meet the needs of students.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nataliya Yankovskaya Olga Neklyudova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 24 32 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-24-32 Lexical Representation of Knowledge about a Human Being in English https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1385 <div>This paper presents the research in&nbsp;the sphere of lexical representation. On&nbsp;the premise that word meaning offers insights into conceptual knowledge stored in&nbsp;the mind, we have analyzed the semantics of the set of synonyms denoting a&nbsp;human being without reference to gender, age, occupation or&nbsp;peculiarities of personality and without any evaluation of the referent. These lexical items are person, individual, human being, and one of the meanings of man and personality. Use of etymological, dictionary, derivational, collocation, context analysis and conceptual modelling enabled us to build a&nbsp;list of conceptual components that comprise the knowledge about a&nbsp;human being represented in&nbsp;the English language. To date, the conceptual models used to visualize knowledge do not seem applicable to visualizing knowledge about a&nbsp;human being; therefore, we could only formulate the main features that are characteristic of this knowledge in&nbsp;the English world-view.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Golechkova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 33 38 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-33-38 Verbal Representation of Ethnic Stereotypes about the Dutch in English (an Insight into Cross-Cultural Perception via the Language) https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1386 <div>The paper presents a brief summary of the multi-level interdisciplinary research on Englishmen’s ethnic stereotypes about the Dutch and the ways they manifest themselves in the English language. Unconventionally, the national stereotype is investigated as a subject of Cognitive Linguistics. As a result, the term “conceptual model” is proposed as an equivalent to “conceptual metaphor”, and two conceptual models verbally represented by the ethnonym “Dutch” and phraseological units with this component are described. A literature review examines if the identified conceptual models are supported in literary discourse, then the usage of the key lexis is analyzed meticulously for the same purpose. The last part of the paper suggests the results of the experiment held to verify if the stereotypical perceptions of the Dutch are maintained by people in contemporary Great Britain. The results indicate that language plays a significant role in stereotype formation and maintenance.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Golubovskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 39 51 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-39-51 Cognitive Aspect of Intercultural Communication https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1387 <div>The research of cognitive aspects of intercultural communication is aimed to explore national linguistic consciousness, its peculiarities in order to determine the universal basics which make the intercultural communication possible while preserving national cultural identity and language diversity. This scientific analysis can become a background for developing skills of comprehending foreign speech and providing learning and teaching paths towards communication competence in accordance with Common European Framework of References for Languages. The analysis of texts has shown a fast-growing process of penetration of anglicisms into national languages which leads to obvious structural changes in the national languages. The effects of this interference on cognitive process should be studied and discussed as there is a strong awareness that substituting foreign verbal means for the native ones leads to weakening the immunity of the national language consciousness in general and undermines the national traditions of verbal communication approved and used by a national community. The linguistic analysis of professional activities of interpreters in the process of consecutive translation, students’ experimental with work with texts and material for comprehension and translation in class, survey of psychological tests on perception mechanism made it possible to describe a cognitive scheme of human reflection and interpretation of the real world and its developments which make up the contents of perceived texts during listening and reading. The concept of a subject whose activities are performed at a certain place at a certain time can be given the status of a three-coordinate (subject, place, time) cognitive scheme. The didactic exploitation of this cognitive scheme is seen in teaching students to identify these coordinates in the process of comprehending speech or text and thus to perceive its message by structuring and organizing the information. It is thought to be an effective method of developing productive communication skills as well as to be a reliable scientific basis to create and exploit learning and teaching techniques of handling and integrating information, including that of taking notes and organizing received facts in the process of consecutive translation.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Svetlana Kurbakova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 52 62 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-52-62 Postmodern Discourse and its Semiosis https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1389 <div>Symbolic representation is a&nbsp;specific, uniquely human form of objectification of the real world, a&nbsp;powerful means of communication activity of its reflectivity. Understanding of the phenomenon of sign representation, its modeling and the definition of the sign and its meaning depends on&nbsp;the sign language system and aspects of the language to be interpreted&nbsp;– dynamic or&nbsp;statistical, functional or&nbsp;structural aspects are taken as&nbsp;a&nbsp;basis. This article is an&nbsp;attempt to review the main components of the sign of the postmodern discourse.<br>It&nbsp;should be noted that in&nbsp;modern science there is a&nbsp;tendency to revise the linguistic nature of the sign. Among all areas of linguistics there is a&nbsp;domination of the theoretical reflection, according to which all phenomena are regarded as&nbsp;the implementation of language text, discourse, narrative. Therefore, the full range of human culture is the sum of texts of the intertextuality. Consciousness also appears in&nbsp;the form of text that can be read by&nbsp;the relevant rules of grammar, or, by&nbsp;using the decryption of codes. Foreign linguists developed a&nbsp;new direction in&nbsp;science: the main emphasis is placed on&nbsp;the special role of the interpretation procedures and the importance of reading both cognitive and communicative signs, because any schematization of reality is a&nbsp;sign. The&nbsp;analysis of postmodern texts suggests that thought can not be just interpreted, but also disinterpreted in&nbsp;postmodern discourse. In&nbsp;these texts, the notion of the sign takes on&nbsp;a&nbsp;different, broader meaning than that of word mark. One of the important issues of semiotic analysis of postmodern discourse is to examine and identify the codes that exist to decipher all kinds of signs.<br>Thus, in&nbsp;the context of our research the quite relevant question is to define the temporal signs (linguistic or&nbsp;non-linguistic) to be expressed in&nbsp;the postmodern discourse. As&nbsp;is known, the category of ‘time’ appears as&nbsp;a&nbsp;symbol of life / death, meaning as&nbsp;a&nbsp;cultural reality, and so forth. In&nbsp;modern linguistics it&nbsp;is assumed that postmodern text is regulated by&nbsp;a&nbsp;set of codes: the linguistic code of natural language, the literary code that defines the connectivity of the text, the genre code, and meta-language of a&nbsp;writer. In&nbsp;our view, the essence of postmodern discourse is a&nbsp;combination of mosaic codes, which include the following types of: linguistic, cultural, semiological, interactive, and metatextual codes.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Kseniya Hakobyan Jasmina Šuler-Galos ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 63 71 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-63-71 Barack Obama and Modern American Caricature https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1390 Anatoly Chudinov Svetlana Makeeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-09-01 2015-09-01 4 2 72 74 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-3-72-74 Olympiad in the English Language as a Form of Alternative Language Assessment https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1392 <div>Although a variety of the English language written olympiads (language competitions) exist, fairly little is known about how they are different from traditional forms of language assessment. &nbsp;In Russia, olympiads in the English language are now gaining currency because they provide an opportunity to reveal creative thinking and intellectual abilities of pupils. &nbsp;The present study examined major differences between language olympiads and traditional forms of language assessment. &nbsp;A comparison of five main olympiads in the English language in terms of their levels, assessed skills and task types is made and their distinctive features are outlined. &nbsp;The results of a testing of a new written olympiad of the Higher School of Economics “Vysshaya proba” (Highest Degree) in the English language are analyzed. &nbsp;A set of test items was developed for 120 secondary school pupils in Moscow to find out whether they can easily cope with non-traditional form of assessment, which is language olympiad. &nbsp;The results indicate that language competition as a form of alternative assessment may be introduced at schools to encourage better learning.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Evgeniya Bolshakova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 6 12 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-6-12 Prosodic Variation in Academic Public Presentations https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1393 <div>The&nbsp;article reports on&nbsp;a&nbsp;study of&nbsp;the prosodic characteristics of&nbsp;academic public presentations. Prosodic variation is analysed with regard to&nbsp;the social and cultural context which is significant for&nbsp;the adequate description of&nbsp;discourse prosody. The&nbsp;paper draws on&nbsp;the&nbsp;findings made in&nbsp;the course of&nbsp;the analysis (auditory and acoustic) of&nbsp;presentations delivered by British lecturers. The&nbsp;article contains an&nbsp;overview of&nbsp;contextual factors and discourse strategies used in&nbsp;academic presentations. Special focus is given to&nbsp;prosodic variations in&nbsp;spoken discourse determined by the&nbsp;extralinguistic context. The&nbsp;author argues that that the&nbsp;choice of&nbsp;prosodic means depends on&nbsp;a&nbsp;variety of&nbsp;contextual parameters: speaker-audience relationships (reflected in&nbsp;the tenor of&nbsp;discourse), the&nbsp;speaker’s rhetorical competence, method of&nbsp;delivery, rhetorical tradition and others. The&nbsp;observations made in&nbsp;the paper may be useful to&nbsp;develop expertise in&nbsp;the delivery of&nbsp;academic public presentations which is an&nbsp;important aspect of&nbsp;EFL teachers’ professional training.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Freydina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 13 19 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-13-19 Professional Development, Motivation, and Community in a Moscow In-service Recertification Course https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1394 <div>Between September 2010 and May 2013, the author conducted six cycles of an 8-week recertification course for in-service English teachers in Moscow, Russia. The&nbsp;course syllabus was built on developing a&nbsp;community of practice, as a&nbsp;motivating factor in teacher development. The&nbsp;community was fostered both during in-person meeting time and online participant interaction. While the participants’ objectives were varied, the overarching goal of the course&nbsp;– beyond knowledge and skill building&nbsp;– was to engender a&nbsp;sense of ownership among the participants, both of the course itself and of their own continuing professional development. This was realized in both small incremental ways, such as launching a&nbsp;new discussion online, and in bolder, farther-reaching ways, such as organizing a&nbsp;mini-conference for a&nbsp;local school district.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tony Hull ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 20 26 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-20-26 Teachers’ Written Feedback: Does the Delivery Method Matter? https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1395 <div>Responding to student writing, which is a&nbsp;widely researched area, is still one of the most challenging parts of the EAP (English for Academic Purposes) teacher’s job. Little attention has been given to analyzing the role of systematic feedback on students’ improvement of writing at the university. The&nbsp;paper reports on the results of a&nbsp;small-scale action research conducted among first-year undergraduate students, which explored the effect of record sheets, used as a&nbsp;tool to track student progress in writing argumentative essays. Apart from student portfolios and record sheets, the 8-week study used other methods of data collection that included recorded semi-structured interviews and a&nbsp;survey. Findings show that providing consistently structured (praise and criticism) selective (global and local) feedback to students has a&nbsp;positive effect both on the teacher and on student perception of feedback and, generally, their achievements in developing writing skills. The&nbsp;study may motivate EAP practitioners to change their current classroom practices and seek more effective ways of responding to student writing.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Natalia Koliadina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 27 34 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-27-34 Reading Accuracy in EFL Students with a Transparent L1 Background – a Case Study from Poland https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1396 <div>Research indicates that L2&nbsp;reading competence is influenced by L1&nbsp;reading ability, L2&nbsp;proficiency, and L2&nbsp;decoding competence. The&nbsp;present study investigates the&nbsp;significance of&nbsp;two variables, regularity and frequency, in&nbsp;relation to&nbsp;English as a&nbsp;Foreign Language (EFL) reading accuracy in&nbsp;students with a&nbsp;transparent L1. Fifteen 6th&nbsp;grade students in&nbsp;their sixth year of&nbsp;regular instruction in&nbsp;English took part in&nbsp;this study. Their mother tongue is Polish whereas English is their foreign language; thus, their language competence in&nbsp;L1&nbsp;and L2&nbsp;differs substantially. The&nbsp;research design followed Glusko (1979), Plaut (1996), and Wang and Koda (2007). There are four sets of&nbsp;real words. Two features of&nbsp;real words are manipulated for&nbsp;regularity and frequency. The&nbsp;study reveals that both conditions of&nbsp;script, regularity and transparency, affect reading accuracy in&nbsp;EFL students. However, the&nbsp;dimension of&nbsp;regularity is a&nbsp;stronger predicator of&nbsp;accuracy than the&nbsp;frequency with which the&nbsp;students encounter a&nbsp;word. From the&nbsp;pedagogical perspective, the&nbsp;collected data supports the&nbsp;use of&nbsp;structured reading instructions in&nbsp;the EFL classroom in&nbsp;order to&nbsp;restrain negative transfer of&nbsp;L1 to&nbsp;L2&nbsp;reading strategies.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Monika Łodej ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 35 40 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-35-40 English Phraseology: Integration with Terminology Science https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1397 <div>The&nbsp;article is devoted to the study of English semi-idioms (a term suggested by A. Kunin), units with both terminological and metaphorical meanings. These units were studied from different angles but here their dual nature is viewed through the possibility of providing an experiment. The&nbsp;paper shows how a&nbsp;linguistic experiment can reveal not only the meaning of some unit, but the peoples’ attitude towards the use of these phrases, their individual level of understanding, interpreting and realising. As cognition is very important in the understanding of semantics, as well as a&nbsp;new perspective in the study of phraseology, a&nbsp;synergetic approach as well as a&nbsp;cognitive one is becoming one of the ways to scrutinising the nature of terminological phraseological units. The&nbsp;paper focuses on the possible ways of showing that terms can develop metaphorical meanings though sometimes people have no ideas of the etymology of some units. An&nbsp;experiment to show the dual nature of such units as terminological phraseologisms was provided on the bases of a&nbsp;specially created questionnaire. The&nbsp;result of the experiment proved that some terms can acquire new metaphorical meanings and function in the language and speech as phraseological units. The&nbsp;results of the experiment as well as various references to the matter of the study&nbsp;– semi-idioms&nbsp;– may turn to be useful in language studies, learning English as a&nbsp;second language, investigating English Terminology and Phraseology.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Nikulina ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 41 45 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-41-45 Teacher Corrective Oral Feedback in the Classroom https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1398 <div>The&nbsp;article reports on a&nbsp;study of teacher corrective oral feedback in Iris Becker Elementary School, a&nbsp;public school serving pupils from kindergarten-5th grade in Dearborn, Michigan. Some researchers claim that teacher corrective oral feedback is beneficial to L2&nbsp;learning while others discard its merit. This study is an attempt to explore this topic further with young learners. The&nbsp;method used in the study included one classroom observation. The&nbsp;participants included one mainstream classroom teacher and about 25&nbsp;students. The&nbsp;results show high teacher corrective oral feedback.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Nasy Inthisone Pfanner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 46 55 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-46-55 The Last Word on Words. Lectures on English Lexicology. Morozova Nataliya. Moscow: University book, 2010. 178 p. ISBN 978-5-91304-152-4 https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1401 Olga Chupryna ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-06-01 2015-06-01 4 2 65 65 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-65 Self-Regulation Skills: Several Ways of Helping Students Develop Self-Regulated Learning https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1406 <div>Empirical research supports the long held assumption that self-control, self-esteem, and motivational orientations of adult language learners are important factors in&nbsp;their language learning behavior. However, precisely these variables influence the language learning process has yet to be investigated. The goal of this paper is to examine the role of how self-control, self-esteem and motivational orientations influence the English language learning process. Recent methodological advances and various theoretical frameworks that have guided the present research are considered in&nbsp;this paper. A special “bidirectional course” turning on&nbsp;teacher-learner interaction was designed - a&nbsp;communicative course which promoted learner autonomy. The results indicate that active involvement in&nbsp;learning, monitoring motivation, self-control and self–esteem are positively related to learning outcomes, demonstrating that the acquisition of self-regulation skills have a&nbsp;positive impact on&nbsp;the learning of English.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Baranovskaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 56 64 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-2-56-64 New approaches to teacher development in an EAP context https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1399 <div>Professional development is an&nbsp;important part of&nbsp;teachers’ professional lives. It involves improvement of&nbsp;individual skills, personal performance, chances of&nbsp;obtaining a&nbsp;good job, and career advancement. The&nbsp;article reports on&nbsp;teacher professional development of&nbsp;English language teachers. It, first, explains the&nbsp;need for&nbsp;teacher training seminars and an&nbsp;increased demand for&nbsp;new IELTS exam teaching skills based on&nbsp;a study conducted by the&nbsp;author; then it outlines standards for&nbsp;English teachers and, finally, it looks at&nbsp;various areas of&nbsp;teacher development at&nbsp;the tertiary level, such as teaching portfolio, collaboration, teacher study groups, workshops, and research seminars. Findings reveal that teachers lack experience of&nbsp;teaching for&nbsp;IELTS and its assessment; they have also difficulties in&nbsp;teaching academic style to&nbsp;students and explaining the&nbsp;text structure for&nbsp;two IELTS essays; the&nbsp;format of&nbsp;the speaking part is also a&nbsp;problem with several teachers. These results indicate that there is a&nbsp;need for&nbsp;teacher training seminars as the&nbsp;first step in&nbsp;teacher development and a&nbsp;demand for&nbsp;continuous professional development in&nbsp;a particular university context</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Elena Velikaya ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 38 44 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-38-44 Investigating the Gap between L2 Grammar Textbooks and Authentic Speech: Corpus-Based Comparisons of Reported Speech https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1402 <div>Corpus Linguistics (CL) has made significant inroads into the field of second language acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. As more corpora have become available, researchers and teachers alike have begun to realize the importance of empirically testing ideas that have long been taken for granted and accepted as fact. This is especially true for grammar textbooks written for second language (L2) learners. Do the textbooks that are being used reflect real world grammatical usage? The current study is the first of two in&nbsp;which three corpora were used to examine real world usage of reported speech (RS) as compared to typical presentations of RS in&nbsp;popular L2 grammar U.S. textbooks as they existed in&nbsp;and up to the year 2007. Results show that indirect reported speech (IRS), direct reported speech (DRS) and alternative forms of RS constructions in&nbsp;combination are not only frequent in&nbsp;spoken English but also dependent on&nbsp;register and context. Further, simplifying RS explanations in&nbsp;terms of backshifing with the use of a&nbsp;past tense main reporting verb may be providing inaccurate information to L2 learners of American English. Results generally support, with some exceptions, the findings in&nbsp;previous studies which employed corpus-based analysis to study the relevance of EFL/ESL textbooks (Al-Wossabi, 2014; Barbieri &amp; Eckhardt, 2007; Khojasteh &amp;Shakrpour, 2014; Šegedin, 2008). A&nbsp;forthcoming study will examine new corpora and revised textbooks to measure the degree of change that has occurred since 2007, thereby seeking to replicate the results of a&nbsp;more general review on&nbsp;the same topic done by Khojasteh and Shakrpour (2014).</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Kevin Cancellaro ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 6 11 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-6-11 EST for EMI: A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Domain-Specific Fluency https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1403 <div>An English for Science and Technology (EST) course is offered as a&nbsp;potential bridge to English as a&nbsp;Medium of Instruction (EMI) in&nbsp;the sciences. Consisting of four modules, each organized around a&nbsp;“big problem” in&nbsp;science or technology, the course challenges students to collectively arrive at solutions through critical and creative thinking that ultimately finds expression in&nbsp;three modalities: verbal (e.g., expert panel discussions, debates) graphic (e.g., problem statements, action plans), and visual-spatial (e.g., graphs, models). It is suggested that Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches to language learning&nbsp;– especially ones propelled by critical thinking frameworks (e.g., SPRE)&nbsp;– not only ease the transition to science courses where English is the medium of instruction but promote the acquisition of general competencies thought vital to 21st century success.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Sharon Hannigan ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 12 19 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-12-19 Looking for an EIL Pronunciation Standard: A Literature Review and Classroom Experience from the Russian L1 Perspective https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1404 <div>This article concerns itself with the identification of language units essential to the intelligibility of communication of non-native English speakers (NNESs) in&nbsp;international settings, or English as an international language (EIL) communication. It focuses on&nbsp;a&nbsp;seemingly narrow but nevertheless significant area of speech production and reception&nbsp;– pronunciation. Based on&nbsp;the works of pronunciation scholars and classroom experience, we outline areas of concern for NNES training and suggest pronunciation foci for Russian learners of English as a&nbsp;foreign language (EFL). We specifically examine areas where academic discourse goals overlap with the goals of developing NNES pronunciation fluency and rhetorical competence, targeting those features that, if improved upon, would make NNES speech sound intelligible, educated and cultured as the academic environment requires. We consider these features in&nbsp;view of their importance for two emerging pedagogical domains: English as a&nbsp;lingua franca (ELF) and English as a&nbsp;medium of instruction (EMI), particularly taking into account their approach to NNESs’ identity and attitude.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Tatiana Skopintseva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 20 26 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-20-26 Language, Task and Situation: Authenticity in the Classroom https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1405 <div>There is debate on&nbsp;the use of authenticity in&nbsp;language classrooms in&nbsp;terms of language, task, and situation. “Authenticity of language” spans a&nbsp;continuum that begins with inauthentic materials&nbsp;– wholly created by a&nbsp;teacher or materials developer&nbsp;– to constructed materials, modified from real-world materials, to those materials created for non-pedagogical L1 purposes. “Authenticity of task” questions whether students are engaging with language materials in&nbsp;a&nbsp;way that would appear natural outside the classroom. “Authenticity of situation” refers to non-classroom contexts. Complicating ideas of authenticity is the question of materials selection. This paper explores teachers’ awareness of authenticity and suggests ways to incorporate authentic language, tasks, and situations to enhance classroom learning.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Ken Beatty ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 27 37 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-27-37 On the Conceptual Basis of the English Adjectival Category https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1407 <div>The paper focuses on&nbsp;the cognitive foundation of English adjectives that denote mental characteristics of human beings. Several cognitive models have been advanced in&nbsp;an attempt to account for the semantic structure underlying the lexical category in&nbsp;question. After reviewing these models, a&nbsp;method for determining which of them most accurately captures the “cognitive reality” of English adjectival “deep structure” is proposed. The paper concludes with arguments for the inclusion of additional “motion attributes” to Lakoff’s ICM (1987), namely, “guide’s support” and “speed”.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Marina Antonova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 45 50 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-45-50 Russian Students’ Associative View of Germans https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/1408 <div>The article investigates semantic forms of the association field ‘German’ in&nbsp;the linguistic consciousness of Russian students. It systematises Russian stereotypical ideas of Germans through a&nbsp;word association experiment. Five thematic areas of the semantic form ‘German’ are described. Both direct (from stimulus to response) and inverse (from response to stimulus) test items probing the associative field ‘German’ were analysed. The results indicate how stable stereotypical ideas of Germans are in&nbsp;the consciousness of today’s Russian students.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Vasiliy Glushak ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 51 58 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-51-58 Current Trends in the Development of Psycholinguistics in Russia https://jle.hse.ru/article/view/4454 Valreia Aivazova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2015-03-01 2015-03-01 4 2 59 63 10.17323/2411-7390-2015-1-1-59-63