Journal of Language and Education <p><strong>Journal of Language and Education (JLE)</strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;is a peer-reviewed electronic international journal published quarterly by the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Russia. The journal publishes theoretical, analytical and research articles in the fields of linguistics, interdisciplinary linguistic studies, psycholinguistics, pedagogical psychology, methods of teaching languages and cross-cultural communication. The articles range from research-based work to personal experience of implementing a language course. The journal addresses academics, professionals, and students interested in innovations in phonetics, lexis, grammar, interdisciplinary linguistic studies and theory and practice of teaching languages.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the <a title="Copyright Notice" href="">Copyright Notice.</a></p> (Elena V. Tikhonova) (Tatiana D. Pertova) Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 OJS 60 Qualitative Adjectives in EFL Students’ Reflective Writing Essays <p>Qualitative adjectives are often used in expressive writing, including reflective writing. They express and (de)intensify feelings and emotions, thereby expressing stance. This study investigates the adjective profiles of 60 first-year EFL students’ reflective essays and compares male and female university students’ utilization of qualitative adjectives and those used as attitudinal stance markers. Data were collected from a reflective writing task after students participated in a seminar on effective listening. Analyses were conducted considering the General Service List (GSL), the Academic Word List (AWL), and words that do not appear in either of the preceding lists. The results indicated that qualitative adjectives accounted for 6% of the words in these reflective writing essays, and the male students used a greater number of adjectives than the female students. This difference, which was at a statistically significant level, likely stems from male students’ greater use of adjectives from the Academic Word Lists. The results also showed that 47.5% of the adjectives used in these essays were attitudinal. There was no statistically significant difference between the frequencies with which the male and the female students used these attitudinal adjectives. The results are discussed and recommendations are made to increase students’ effective use of adjectives in reflective writing.</p> Tanju Deveci, Nader Ayish Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Disclosure and Moroccan EFL Learners’ Writing Development: Effects on Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency <p>This article addressed the relationship between students’ self-disclosure—that is, sharing social and positive information—and writing development in the English language classroom. The pre-test-post-test research design was adopted to assess whether students’ reflections on personal positive experiences including feelings and opinions help improve their writing output as measured by complexity, accuracy, and fluency. The participants, drawn from a convenience sample, were 15 Moroccan students enrolled in the department of English studies at a Moroccan university. These participants were included to establish a homogenous level of English proficiency in writing. The participants completed a pre-test, six positive self-disclosure topics, and a post-test. A paired-sample t-test was computed to determine if a significant mean difference existed between the pre- and post-tests. Although the descriptive statistics suggest that the learners showed relative improvement in complex and fluent language, their overall writing development did not reach a statistically significant difference level. Although differing writing prompts and learners’ academic learning experiences influenced the overall findings, this study contributes to the debate about the role of self-disclosure activities in improving certain language components in writing and calls for developing study programs that consider students’ personal lives in language arts classes.</p> Mohsine Jebbour Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Impact of Social Networking Sites on Study Habits and Interpersonal Relationships among Vietnamese Students <p>Social media has a profound influence on every aspect of human beings nowadays. This study investigated the impact of social networking sites on study habits and interpersonal relationships at the tertiary level. A total of 125 college students from different universities in Hanoi were chosen through a convenience sampling technique. Quantitative methodology was employed for the research instrument and a descriptive survey design was adopted for this study. The researchers designed questionnaires with Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficients of at least 0.84 to collect data for the study. Analysis of the data was carried out using frequencies, percentages, means, <em>t</em>-tests, and Pearson correlation statistics at the 0.05 alpha level. The findings revealed that students’ level of using social networking sites had a negative influence on their study habits and their interpersonal relationships. Based on the findings, it was recommended that regular orientations should be given to students on how and when to use social media to enhance their study habits or to spend time improving their interpersonal relationships with their families, friends, and teachers.</p> Vu Van Tuan Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Integration of Verbal Humor into EFL Classrooms: The Issues of Appropriateness and Relevance in Focus <p>The present study examined the manifestations of Iranian male and female EFL teachers’ use of humor in the classroom environment. To this end, a qualitative study with 30 participants was implemented in two English language institutes in Iran. Equally, 15 male and female EFL teachers were selected by convenience sampling and their classes were audio-recorded and later transcribed for the examination of the types of humor they used and their frequency. Wanzer, Frymier, Wojtaszcyk, and Smith’s (2006) method of humor analysis and categorization of appropriateness was exploited for the analysis of the types of humor collected from the participants of the study. The results suggested that the use of humor by male teachers was more frequent than that of female teachers. It was revealed that 57% of the humor production was by male EFL teachers and 43% was produced by female EFL teachers. The results revealed that the most frequent humor type in male teachers’ classrooms was “funny comments” (27%), with “teasing students” (3%) being the least frequent one. In the case of appropriate humor use, similarly, female teachers used “funny comments” (52%) as the most frequent one, while there was no instance of “providing humorous examples”. Considering inappropriate humor use, both male and female teachers used “funny comments” (45%) as the most frequent type. The findings of the present study can be of use to EFL teachers and suggests the need for workshops and training courses on the integration of humor into EFL classes.</p> Minoo Alemi, Hessameddin Ghanbar, Atefeh Rezanejad Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Corpus linguistics for education-A guide for research by Pascual Perez-Paredes: A Book Review <p class="1Abstract">The book <em>Corpus linguistics for education</em> was written by Pascual Perez-Paredes (2020) and published by Routledge. The book aims to provide a guide for how corpus linguistics (CL) methods can be used in educational research. The book consists of seven chapters and an additional conclusion chapter. The book addresses different themes that are relevant for the inclusion of CL methods in the education research field such as frequency register (texts) and keyword analysis, among others. The book is distinguished by the inclusion of a good number of tables and figures providing step-by-step guides for all the selected methods of analysis. This book is very important for researchers and students who are interested in using CL methods in the field of education. This review consists of a brief summary of the eight chapters and a critical discussion of three key issues raised in the book. The review also provides an overall evaluation of the contributions this book has made to this particular discipline.</p> Awatif Alruwaili Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 ‘Publish and Flourish’ instead of ‘Publish or Perish’: A Motivation Model for Top-quality Publications <p>Although the ‘publish-or-perish’ principle has spread globally, many authors believe that it is a negative reinforcer (motivator) and harmful. With this paper, we have tried to help overcome the growing pressure of negative reinforcers on researchers. The paper aimed to propose a model for factors influencing researchers to publish in WoS/Scopus journals, based mainly on positive reinforcement and a combination of concepts including theories of control, management, stakeholders, and psychology. The model was intended for Bulgarian universities. It covered 17 motivational drivers and 29 potential features of internal university stakeholders directly involved in the topic. Factor ranking was not incorporated in the model. The research methodology covered the methods of expert evaluation, analysis/synthesis, induction/deduction, and the toolkit consisted of a comprehensive survey and Kendall’s rank concordance coefficient. The model was implemented at a Bulgarian state university. The empirical study was conducted among 120 researchers. It resulted in factor rankings by university internal stakeholders. The highest-ranked motivational driver was reputation, and the lowest-ranked was the publish-or-perish pressure reducing. The highest-ranked potential features were university prestige and potential and support for promotion. We believe that this model contributes to the theory of behaviour control. The model will also improve university research management by enriching its tools.</p> Maya Lambovska, Daniela Todorova Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship between Critical Thinking, Self-regulation, and Teaching Style Preferences among EFL Teachers: A Path Analysis Approach <p>Teachers are world makers. They can change the thinking, attitudes, and lives of their students. Thus, it is essential to study the factors that foster teachers’ competency. Critical thinking, self- regulation, and teaching style are some of the factors influencing the effectiveness of teachers. In line with this argument, the present study delved into the possible impact of critical thinking abilities and self-regulatory strategies of English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers on their teaching style preferences. The possible influence of critical thinking abilities on teacher self- regulation was also studied. To do this, Watson-Glaser’s Critical Thinking Appraisal (Form 1), the Teacher Self-Regulation Scale (TSRS), and Grasha’s Teaching Style Inventory (TSI) were administered to 320 EFL teachers who were teaching at different private language institutions in Iran. A path analysis was utilized to ponder their causal relationships. The findings indicated that teachers with higher critical thinking abilities and self-regulatory skills tend to implement learner- centered styles (namely, Facilitator and Delegator) while teachers with lower critical thinking abilities and self-regulatory skills tend to do the opposite. Moreover, the significant effects of critical thinking on teacher self-regulation were determined. The implications of this study may open up new perspectives into successful pedagogy for policymakers, curriculum designers, and teachers.</p> Tahereh Heydarnejad, Azar Hosseini Fatemi, Behzad Ghonsooly Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of a CLIL Programme on Linguistic Progress at Two Different Points in Time <p>In an attempt to explore the effects of different kinds of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learning contexts, content and language integrated learning (CLIL) have been at the centre of FL acquisition research over the past decade. Studies have focused on the features and gains this setting brings, whether content is learnt at the same level of success as when taught in the learners’ L1, and whether that L1 is negatively affected by CLIL. However, to our knowledge, very little attention has been brought to how the seniority of the programme affects learner progress in the target language. This study aims to fill such a gap in the understanding that the programme will have developed and improved in terms of quality of exposure and interaction, and that learners’ EFL performance will be higher. To do that, we measured the efficacy of a long-standing CLIL programme in Barcelona twelve years after it was launched and examined the reading, writing, and lexico-grammatical abilities of CLIL EFL learners aged 8, 11, and 14 compared with results obtained by learners measured at the onset of the programme in 2005. The results showed that the quality of the programme has increased over the last decade, guaranteeing a higher level of EFL student proficiency when raw scores are considered, but not in terms of linguistic gains, in which only improvement in older students’ grammar and reading skills can be observed.</p> Marta Segura, Helena Roquet, Carmen Pérez-Vidal Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 A Systematic Overview of Issues for Developing EFL Learners’ Oral English Communication Skills <p>The objective of this systematic review is to present a critical overview of current studies to explore issues such as the factors causing EFL learners’ poor oral performance and the teaching and assessment methods of oral English communication skills (OECSs) for developing tertiary level learners’ OECSs in EFL contexts. For this purpose, 51 empirical studies of the 2907 retrieved from SpringerLink, SCOPUS, Web of Science, and the Google Scholar database that were published between 2010 and 2019 in different EFL contexts were analyzed. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and was analyzed thematically using NVIVO 12, followed by the Mendeley reference management software. Studies that were conducted in native English contexts and non-empirical studies were excluded from consideration for this study. The findings showed that the environmental factor was the primary factor for learners’ poor OECS performance in EFL contexts. For the method of teaching and assessment of learners’ OECSs, the use of technology is rapidly increasing in different EFL contexts. This study suggests some implications for both future researchers and academics for developing EFL learners’ oral English communication skills dealing with environmental, psychological, and linguistic factors along with teaching and learning resources at the tertiary level in EFL contexts.</p> Prodhan Mahbub Ibna Seraj, Habil Hadina Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Becoming an ESL Researcher: A Personal Monologue <p>This reflective paper narrates my research journey from a naïve researcher to a critic and from a behaviorist to a post-structuralist. It highlights the different philosophical, methodological, and theoretical dilemmas I faced in conceptualizing students’ experiences in an English as a Second Language program in higher education during my doctoral studies. This journey is divided into three phases: construction, deconstruction, and reconstruction. In the construction phase, I conceptualized students’ experiences from my own established knowledge, which was grounded in my presumptions about teaching and learning. During the deconstruction phase, I questioned my understanding of knowledge and social realities. In the reconstruction phase, I interacted with Phenomenography, Activity Theory, Symbolic Interactionism, Communities of Practice, and Bourdieusian Structuralism<em>. </em>This paper narrates these interactions, focusing mainly on the dilemmas I faced as a researcher. These reflections could be highly beneficial for new researchers who may face the same situations at different stages of their research careers.</p> Irfan Ahmed Rind Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Efficacies of an Explicit Vocabulary Instruction Model on ESL Learners’ Vocabulary Size and Writing Skills <p>Vocabulary size is believed to have positive correlations with learners’ language skills, reading comprehension, knowledge acquisition, and academic achievement. In Malaysia, the lack of vocabulary has been identified as one of the causes for students’ inability to acquire a second language. This quasi-experimental study examined the efficacies of employing the Contextualized Word Family (CWF) Model for direct vocabulary instruction (DVI) on vocabulary size and writing skills among secondary school students based on three proficiency levels. Through a purposive sampling method, 143 Grade 8 students were classified into three proficiency groups and were administered a similar treatment of contextualized word families. The Productive Vocabulary Level Test (PVLT) was used to measure the participants’ vocabulary size and guided essay writing tests were employed to obtain their test scores in the pre-test and post-test. The findings revealed the positive effects of using the CWF Model for enhancing students’ vocabulary size and writing ability. After a ten-week intervention, the majority of the students from low, intermediate, and high proficiency groups were able to increase their vocabulary size from below 1000 words to 1000-2000 words. There was also an increase in the number of students who were able to reach the 2000-word level of vocabulary size for all three groups. The findings from this study ascertained the positive effects of using the CWF Model to boost not only the vocabulary size, but also the writing skills of the high and intermediate proficiency students. On the writing tests, the high proficiency students showed a significant increase while the intermediate proficiency students experienced a slight increase in their writing test scores, but it was insignificant. Surprisingly, the low proficiency students experienced a significant decrease in their writing test scores after the treatment despite experiencing an increase in their vocabulary size. Future studies are recommended to utilize a true experimental design with a longer treatment period especially for examining the efficacies of the model on students’ writing skills.</p> Frankie Subon, Norseha Unin Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring How ELT Teachers Perceive and Practice English Language Assessment <p>As a well-designed language education program naturally requires a well-designed assessment component, the pivotal role of assessment in language education needs to be stressed. This study focuses on how English language teaching (ELT) teachers receive training in English language assessment, and how they perceive and practice assessment in Turkey. The study was conducted with the participation of 198 ELT teachers from 24 K-12 level schools and eight universities. A mixed-methods research design was chosen and the data were collected through a questionnaire, follow-up interviews, observations, personal conversations, and sample exam evaluations. The findings indicated that the assessment practices of the teachers were shaped by the teachers’ language learning and teaching experiences, their intuition, adherence to assessment traditions, and the emulation of what other teachers conducted to conform to group norms. It was also observed that as the teachers did not receive proper pre-service and in-service assessment training, their assessment knowledge was low. Moreover, it was found that the assessment component of teacher training programs remained peripheral and did not help equip teachers with assessment-related theoretical knowledge and practical skills. Finally, the assessment quality in these schools was found to be low and assessment was taken as a formal requirement to grade students. In the final part of the paper, some suggestions for effective assessment are put forward.</p> Ali Isik Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Status of Theme in Research Article Abstracts in Seven Dentistry Subdisciplines: A Text-Based Study of Intradisciplinary Variations and Similarities in Thematic Choices and Thematic Progression Patterns <p>A research article (RA) abstract provides an overview or summary of the whole research. It is one of the most important sections in an RA since it is the first section researchers read to decide if the article is relevant to their research or not. Researchers need to know the intradisciplinary (within the same discipline) variations and similarities in the choice of Theme and thematic progression (TP) patterns in RA abstracts in their discipline. Several studies have investigated variations and similarities in the use of Theme across disciplines. To the best of our knowledge, there is a lack of studies investigating intradisciplinary variations in the use of Theme in RA abstracts of dentistry subdisciplines. As epistemological differences exist between the various dentistry subdisciplines, it is pertinent to examine if there are intradisciplinary variations in the construction of Theme in the subfields of dentistry. The present study aims to investigate if there are any intradisciplinary variations and similarities in the use of Theme and TP patterns across seven dentistry subdisciplines: oral sciences, periodontics, endodontics, operative dentistry, prosthodontics, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and orthodontics. The study is framed by Halliday’s systemic functional linguistics’ approach to language and Daneš’s model for TP patterns. The findings revealed intradisciplinary significant differences between the subfields of dentistry in terms of the use of Theme types at p &lt; .05 (p-value=0.0294), while there were no significant differences in the use of TP patterns and thematic markedness. Various interesting linguistic features characterizing the subdisciplines were found, although no significant interdisciplinary differences were found between dentistry RA abstracts and the findings reported in the literature of other disciplines. Finally, implications for novice dental researchers attempting to write an RA abstract are presented.</p> Hesham Suleiman Alyousef Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Collaborative Discussion Model: Developing Writing Skills through Prewriting Discussion <p>This study aims to investigate the effect of peer-assisted prewriting discussion on second language (L2) academic writing and its benefits for students with different proficiency levels. While there is a significant body of research exploring the positive impact of collaboration on L2 writers' written performance and the ways it could be organised, there is little practical consideration on how to formulate explicit instruction. The rationale for this research lies in designing and arranging explicit instruction that could lead to L2 learners producing a higher quality writing output. Based on both qualitative and quantitative methods, and drawn on students’ written texts and data analysis, the current study was conducted to devise and test a proposed model, which the author will term the ‘collaborative discussion model’ (the CDM). The control and experimental groups of Russian EFL students (n = 48) were engaged in written assignments after naturally occurring discussions and then the latter group was involved in an instructor-led discussion. The practice writing tasks were rated with the analytic rubric used in IELTS, assessing task response, coherence and cohesion, lexical resource, and grammatical range. The findings suggest that collaborative prewriting tasks, accomplished in the experimental group of students with different levels of L2 proficiency, may encourage students to engage more in reflection about the content and language of the text. As the texts produced after introducing the CDM were scored higher, especially on the criteria of task response and lexical resource, it is suggested that scaffolding prewriting discussions can potentially augment the writing skills of learners and the CDM can be used as a complementary activity to address the challenges associated with academic writing. The results of the questionnaire can imply that there are benefits of explicit instruction for students with different levels of L2 proficiency, although in nuanced ways and different degrees.</p> Tatiana Pospelova Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Autonomy Orientations of English Language Teachers in Turkey <p>The present study aimed to explore autonomy orientations of English language teachers' work at an intensive language school in Turkey. The autonomy orientations of the teachers were analysed through self-determination theory. The study also investigated if these orientations vary according to the teachers’ gender, years of experience, and department of graduation. The investigation was carried out through an autonomy orientations questionnaire. Data were collected from 111 language teachers, 11 of whose opinions were utilized for further analysis. The results showed that teachers had moderate autonomy supportive orientation, which was reported to be risky. Moreover, gender was the only variable that had a significant effect on the autonomy orientations. The teachers mainly blamed the education system for restricting their adoption of the autonomous orientations. The results imply the necessity of explicit training on how teachers can be encouraged to have more autonomy supporting orientations.</p> Aslihan Bagci, Belgin Aydin Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 The Socio-linguistic Profiles, Identities, and Educational Needs of Greek Heritage Language Speakers in Chicago <p>The present study aims to further the research on heritage language speakers (HLSs) by providing the socio-linguistic profiles and identities of an uninvestigated community of heritage speakers, namely the Greeks of Chicago, thus offering data for a less-studied HL, Greek. The participants were fifty-four (N=54) first, second, and third-generation Greek HLSs. The socio-linguistic data were collected through an online survey, while identification with Greek culture as well as ethnic attachment and practice of Greek traditions were investigated through the content analysis of data from the Greek Heritage Language Corpus. The results of the study are discussed with respect to how they can improve our knowledge of the educational needs of Greek HL learners. This research-based knowledge can be employed for addressing the academic needs of HL learners through educational programs. The authors propose an agenda for a more linguistically and culturally responsive education program for HL learners, in general, and Greek HL learners in diasporic communities, in particular.</p> Zoe Gavriilidou, Lydia Mitits Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Education for Sustainable Development: Glocal Implications for Universities <p>The editorial overviews the key research aspects of embedding sustainable development into university systems worldwide. The JLE editors dwell upon the pivotal role of higher education in transferring knowledge, skills, and underlying values in promoting Sustainable Development Goal No.4 (Quality Education for Sustainable Development). The editorial analysis is underpinned by the most cited Scopus-indexed articles (Top-50 as of March 2021) on sustainable development in higher education. JLE potential authors will find some recommendations on the subject field gaps and key directions to be published in the journal upcoming issues.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2021 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 31 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0300 Using Debate to develop Writing Skills for IELTS Writing Task 2 among STEM Students <p>The paper focuses on the issue of developing essay writing skills in the context of IELTS preparation and explores the issue of whether academic debate can enhance STEM students’ ability to structure their essays, develop a smooth progression of ideas, and provide supported and extended arguments, which, in turn, may result in higher scores for the IELTS Task Response and Coherence and Cohesion categories. To answer this, a study was undertaken in the academic years 2016/2017 and 2017/2018 among STEM undergraduate students in the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, Russia. The study involved two groups of students (36 students in each): the group that attended regular IELTS preparation classes and the other that, in addition to regular classes, attended debate classes where among other things Toulmin’s argument structure was taught. At the beginning and end of the experiment both groups submitted essays that were analysed according to IELTS rubrics for Task Response and Coherence and Cohesion, and the presence or absence of the elements of Toulmin’s argument structure. In addition, the essays were assessed by an independent IELTS teacher. An independent-samples t-test and Levene’s test were utilised to determine the significance of the collected data. The findings revealed that, on average, the students of the experimental group scored well in Task Response and Coherence and Cohesion, yet some results were inconsistent, which requires further research.</p> Daria Arzhadeeva, Natalia Kudinova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Enhancing Language Assessment Skills among Faculty Members in Saudi EFL Context <p style="margin: 0px 0px 13.33px; text-align: justify; line-height: normal;">In Saudi higher education, assessment has shifted to incorporate intended learning outcomes rather than merely textbook content. Subsequently, faculty members unwillingly participate in high-stakes competitive and harmonized assessment in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) courses during the preparatory year (PY). These challenges emphasize the importance of need-based training for faculty members. Accordingly, this context-specific study scrutinized faculty members’ needs as well as the impact of a training program on engaging the participants and on fostering language assessment skills (LASs) among them. In so doing, an action research design used pre- and post-questionnaires and included a training portfolio to collect data from 31 faculty members. The study first identified those needs as instructional skills, design skills, and educational measurement skills. In the context of professional development, the researchers designed a training program based on those reported needs. During training, the participants expressed their satisfaction with the language assessment. After the training, the participants greatly improved their LASs. The paired tests indicated that the faculty members increased their instructional skills, design skills, and skills of educational measurement. Further research is recommended for enhancing LASs among EFL students.</p> Mohammed Nazim, Abduljalil Hazaea Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Image Improvement and Iranian EFL Learners’ Oral Performance: Effects on Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency <p>The present study intended to investigate the effects of self-image improvement on quality of Iranian EFL learners’ oral productions. To this aim, 30 lower-intermediate university students were randomly divided into an experimental (EG) and control (CG) groups. The main focus in both groups was enhancing the students’ oral performance while only the EG received the treatment via self-image improving techniques. Their self-image was measured with the aid of Offer Self-Image Questionnaire and their oral performance was examined using two parallel IELTS speaking tests before and after the treatment. It was found that by receiving self-image training, participants’ self-image improved, which led to a parallel improvement in their speaking skill. More specifically, the EG improved significantly in oral complexity and two components of oral fluency, MLR and speech rate A. However, regarding oral accuracy and speech rate B, no significant difference was observed between the two groups.</p> Zahra Alimorad, Shiva Yazdani Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Advanced Russian EFL Learners’ Awareness of Idiomatic Synonymy, Antonymy, and Polysemy <p>Foreign language acquisition is notoriously constrained by learners’ lack of awareness of the systemic relations that are obtained among stable multiple-unit lexical items. This results in learners’ inability to variegate their performance (both written and oral) with idioms that stand in complementary (synonymy) or contrastive (antonymy) distribution to one another. Nor are learners typically able to distinguish between the multiple senses of English idioms. Given these impedimenta, the present research investigates the degree of entrenchment of idiomatic synonymy, antonymy, and polysemy and, on the back of it, sets the agenda for partial revision of the practice of exposing learners to English idioms. Data were collected to investigate the knowledge of idiomatic synonymy, antonymy, and polysemy amongst Russian EFL learners. The results of the ANOVA analysis revealed that the degree of awareness of the major types of idiomatic paradigmatic relations significantly differed between the groups, with learners being more aware of synonymy and polysemy than antonymy. The findings suggest that current EFL materials and dictionaries need to be updated and revisited with a view to exposing foreign learners to an extended network of paradigmatic idiomatic relations.</p> Nataliya Lavrova, Elena Nikulina Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Analysing Cultural Elements in L2 Mandarin Textbooks for Malaysian Learners <p>Culture is an important aspect of foreign or second language education as the teaching of foreign languages straddles two languages, the learner’s first language and the target/foreign language, and the different cultures associated with them. Textbooks for the teaching of foreign languages must inevitably orient to cultural elements from at least two cultural practices and environments. In this study, cultural elements in four Mandarin as a second language textbooks written by Malaysian authors were examined using content analysis. The conception of cultural elements proposed by Zhang and Chen and the categorizations of types of culture proposed by Cortazzi and Jin and Chao were employed to investigate the extent to which cultural elements (knowledge-culture or communicative-culture) and types of culture (source, target, international cultures or intercultural interaction) are represented in these textbooks. The analysis found that both knowledge-culture and communicative-culture are embodied in the textbooks. Furthermore, most of the cultural elements identified in the textbooks represent source and target cultures which refer to learners’ own culture and culture of the target language. The presence of international cultures and intercultural interaction, on the other hand, is lower in these textbooks. This study contributes towards a better understanding of how Malaysian authors of Mandarin as a second language textbooks for Malaysian learners incorporate cultural elements in the books they write. It highlights the importance of integrating cultural elements and representing a diversity of cultures in textbooks for teaching Mandarin as a second language.</p> Wen Yue Lin, Lay Hoon Ang, Mei Yuit Chan, Shamala Paramasivam Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Graduate Students’ Perceived Needs and Preferences for Supervisor Written Feedback for Thesis Writing <p>A plethora of previous research has explored students’ preferences for written feedback from teachers to respond to students’ writing in the classroom. However, little or no research has investigated graduate students’ needs and preferences regarding written feedback provided by their supervisors in response to thesis writing. This study examined the feedback needs and preferences of EFL graduate students to the three nominated themes defining supervisor written feedback to thesis writing in this study: content, genre, and linguistic feedback to thesis writing. Data was collected from 32 master’s students from the TEFL and Media and Communications at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia using a questionnaire and an unstructured interview. The participants’ responses were tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. The results indicated that both groups commonly preferred feedback on content the most. When sub-categories of this feedback were examined further, it was found that TEFL students favored gaps in theoretical understanding, but Media and Communications students preferred coverage and gaps in the literature. They also showed discrepancies regarding their preferences for part-genres in thesis writing and the various features of linguistic accuracy.&nbsp; The results of this study suggest that feedback on theses should be realized in regard to the needs and preferences of graduate students. Finally, implications for further research that could shed light on the resonant understanding of feedback on thesis writing are presented.</p> Yenus Nurie Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Applying Freire’s Critical Pedagogy to Iranian EFL Bilingual and Monolingual Speaking Performance <p>The purpose of the present pre-experimental study is to examine the extent to how Critical Pedagogy (CP) may function in EFL teaching in Iran. Compared with the growing but far from conclusive body of research, virtually few studies have been covered comparatively among monolinguals and bilinguals. Also, no studies have examined Freire’s CP among monolinguals and bilinguals especially in Iran, which considered as two privileged and less privileged groups respectively. Therefore, this study was done among sixty Iranian monolingual and bilingual university sophomores to know if CP affects them differently. The study is done under two available classes in bilingual and two other classes in monolingual context. The first groups received problem-posing and the second groups were exposed to banking model. The scoring procedure of participants’ performance was based on IELTS speaking band descriptors. Findings reveal that applying problem-posing model cause improvement in speaking performance of both monolingual and bilingual learners than banking model. More importantly, it is concluded that there is no significant difference between monolinguals and bilinguals in terms of problem-posing model, perhaps because the standards of educational justice have been partially observed among both communities. Finally, implications were drawn for EFL teachers and syllabus designers.</p> Hossein Hashemnezhad Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Lexical Bundles of L1 and L2 English Professional Scholars: A Contrastive Corpus-Driven Study on Applied Linguistics Research Articles <p>The current study examined the structural and functional types of four-word lexical bundles in two different corpora of applied linguistics scientific articles written by L1 English and L1 Indonesian professional writers. The findings show that L2 writers employed a higher number of bundles than L1 writers, but L2 writers underused some of the most typical lexical bundles in L1 English writing. Structurally, unlike previous studies, this study reports the frequent use of prepositional phrase (PP) - based bundles in the articles of L2 writers. However, besides the high frequency of PP-based bundles, L2 authors also used a high number of verbal phrase-based bundles, suggesting that these L2 writers were still acquiring more native-like bundles. In terms of functional types, L2 writers employed fewer<em> quantification </em>bundles than their counterparts. This study has potential implications for teaching English for academic writing. Teachers need to raise their students’ awareness of the most frequently used lexical bundles in a specific academic discipline and pay attention to the discourse conventions of academic writing, helping L2 students transition from clausal to phrasal styles.</p> Muchamad Sholakhuddin Al Fajri, Angkita Wasito Kirana, Celya Intan Kharisma Putri Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 ELT Master’s Programmes in Thailand: Focused Areas and Research Trends <p>The increasing demand for competent users of English and qualified English teachers has accelerated the growth of graduate programmes in English language teaching (ELT). In Thailand, ELT master’s programmes have been serving as a training ground for Thai English teachers for decades. This study explores the focused areas and research trends of Thai ELT master’s programmes. The analyses involved ten ELT master’s programmes offered by ten different universities and 201 master’s theses submitted between the years of 2014 and 2018. Foundation and core courses were categorised into twelve content areas. The findings show that teaching and research methodology courses were the most common areas, indicating that the programmes were not only pedagogical but also research-oriented. In consistence with the international trends of ELT research, the <em>Instructional effects </em>research area still prevails. The number of studies on <em>Assessment</em> and <em>Curriculum/Programme </em>is relatively low compared with the number of courses in such areas. Also discussed are considerations for programme management, lecturers, and students. It is also recommended that all the courses offered be treated as a gateway to research opportunities in addition to teaching practice and professional practice improvement.</p> Athip Thumvichit Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship Between Language Mindsets and Feedback Preferences in L2 Writings of EFL Learners <p>The present study intended to investigate intermediate Iranian EFL learners’ language mindsets and examine the possible relationships between language mindsets and feedback preferences in L2 writing. To achieve these aims, 150 EFL volunteer learners were recruited from several language institutes in Isfahan, Iran, and their language proficiency level was determined through a proficiency test. The learners were then given the Language Mindsets Questionnaire and the Feedback Preferences Scale to fill out. Frequency counts, mean scores, one-sample t-tests, and SEM in Smart PLS were employed to analyze the collected data. The results of the study indicated that for the three subcomponents of the mindsets questionnaire (i.e., general language intelligence beliefs, second language aptitude beliefs, and age sensitivity beliefs about language learning), the learners did not agree (though not significantly) with the entity items, while they expressed significant agreement with the incremental items. The SEM results also revealed that the model (examining the relationship between entity/incremental mindsets and feedback preferences) indicated that entity mindsets were a significant predictor of feedback preferences, yet the incremental mindsets failed to do so. Among the feedback types, EFL learners’ preferences, in a deductive order, were found to be for commentary and conferencing significantly, and then for peer correction, prompts, self-correction to a non-significant extent. The significance of the obtained results are presented and the implications of the study are enumerated.</p> Shima Vaghei, Fariba Rahimi Esfahani, Sajad Shafiee Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Art of Saying “No” to University Students: A Pragmatic Analysis of the Speech Act of Refusal in Teacher-Student Role-Plays <p>The current study aimed to investigate how university teachers decline students’ requests. To this end, the realization strategies of the speech act of refusal by 60 faculty members at a private Saudi university were examined. Data were collected through role-plays and were coded by using an adapted version of Beebe, Takahashi and Uliss-Weltz’s (1990) model of refusal strategies and an adapted version of Trosborg’s (1995) model of internal modifiers. The results showed a clear preference for indirect strategies, a limited use of modifiers, particularly internal ones, and a minimal influence for gender and the teaching experience on the realization strategies. The results are interpreted in light of Brown and Levinson’s (1978, 1987) politeness theory, the use of English as a lingua franca, the specific context of teacher-student talk and the existing literature.</p> Dina Abdel Salam El-Dakhs Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Beyond «Listen and Repeat»: Investigating English Pronunciation Instruction at the Upper Secondary School Level in Slovakia by R. Metruk: A Book Review Pavol Stubna Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Peer Teaching to Assist Tertiary EFL Grammar Learning: Indonesian Tutors’ Perceptions of Challenges and Strategies <p>As an essential language component, grammar plays a crucial role in communication. However, with the need to master various L2 forms within several years and an L1 that has a very different grammatical system from English, many tertiary EFL students find grammar learning challenging. To solve this issue, peer teaching/tutoring can be a very effective way to assist students in improving their grammar. While isolated grammar teaching has its downsides, it is superior in clarifying complex concepts and promoting accuracy. It may help increase students’ grammar competence when combined with other methods as an eclectic approach used in a communicative language program. As grammar tutors play a crucial role in helping their peers, this study examines the challenges they perceive in peer tutoring at the tertiary EFL education level and their strategies for overcoming difficulties. Using interviews to collect data from ten EFL grammar tutors, this qualitative study revealed some issues the tutors faced. Besides identifying problems such as motivating students, preparing the materials, and dealing with less/more proficient students, this research demonstrated that peer teaching might lead to ‘cognitive dependence’ among the lower-level learners. To deal with the various issues, the peer tutors applied practical strategies they had developed mainly from intuition and experience.</p> Elisabet Titik Murtisari, Dewi Puspitasari, Antonina Anggraini Setiamunadi Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Mapping the Current Research Agenda on Scholarly Publishing: Scopus-Indexed Reviews <p>Nearly ten years ago, scholarly publishing came to the fore in research on scientific communication spurred by the evolving Open Science system, the reinvention of peer reviews, and new attitudes to scholarly publications in the ranking-based academic environment. Here, the JLE editors revisit the field of scholarly publishing and identify the most popular areas where potential JLE authors might have difficulty. In this editorial, Scopus-indexed reviews are analysed to map the prevailing trends. The editorial review shows that the trends include open access, peer review transparency, the changing role of libraries in scholarly publishing, CrossRef’s initiatives, outsourcing and skills lacking in publishing, the impact of universities’ prescribed lists for publishing research, open-access monographs, and the role of commercial publishers.</p> Elena Tikhonova, Lilia Raitskaya Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A Pre-Experimental Study on a Process-Genre Approach for Teaching Essay Writing <p>This study explored the feasibility of using a process-genre approach (PGA) for teaching academic writing from the perspective of EFL undergraduates. The sample consisted of 15 students enrolled in a four-year English program at the College of Education in Socotra, Yemen during the academic year 2018-2019. The study followed a pre-experimental design in which a pretest was given to the sample, and an extensive 30-hours program was pursued using the PGA. Additionally, ten informants were singled out for interviews to explore their opinions about the PGA-based teaching they experienced during the experiment. A Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test was used to calculate the degree of significance in students’ improvement on opinion essay writing (Z=3.408, p &lt; 0.05) between the pretest and posttest in favor of the latter. The findings also revealed that students had positive perceptions towards the PGA that was applied by their instructors. The findings suggest that applying such an approach in writing courses could engage learners in writing practices that they view positively.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Wagdi Rashad Ali Bin-Hady, Aref Nassi Abdu Nasser Nasser, Abdu T. Al-Kadi Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Developing a Model for the Evaluation of Iranian EFL Teachers’ Awareness of the Code of Ethics in Research <p>Conducting educational research is not an arbitrary practice. When implementing educational research, teachers, as researchers, need to adhere to ethical rules and norms. Thus, developing an instrument for evaluating English as foreign language (EFL) teachers’ awareness of the code of ethics in research can guide Iranian ELT professionals to work towards setting standards in the assessment of Iranian EFL teachers’ professional development and may assure consistency in EFL teachers’ quality assurance. The principal determination of the present study was to develop a scale to evaluate EFL teachers’ awareness of the code of ethics for conducting research in Iran. This work’s theoretical framework is based on the most influential ethical issues and elements in research in Samadi, Motallebzadeh, Ashraf, and Khajavy’s (2020) study. To this end, 272 Iranian EFL teachers (chosen using convenience sampling) participated in the analysis to fill out the scale in the piloting stage. The scale consisted of five main categories: (F1) Before the beginning of the research, (F2) the Beginning of the research, (F3) Gathering the data, (F4), Analyzing the data, and (F5) Writing, reporting, sharing, and storing the data. The first draft of the scale consisted of 60 items. As part of the validation procedure, the reliability of this scale was determined through Cronbach’s alpha, and its validity was measured by running a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) through a structural equation modeling approach. After performing the CFA, it was found that the questionnaire had high construct validity. Finally, the statistical findings were presented, and the implications of the ELT domain were given. The findings provide empirical evidence that provides a framework for assessing and evaluating EFL teachers’ awareness of the code of ethics in research.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Farideh Samadi, Khalil Motallebzadeh, Hamid Ashraf, Gholam Hassan Khajavy Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Empirical Evidence on the Effectiveness of the Learning by Teaching Technique among University-level English as a Foreign Language Students <p>Learning via teaching has been accepted as one of the best ways to achieve a deep understanding of a topic. This research was aimed at seeking scientific evidence to support this claim by comparing the scores the university-level EFL students obtained through the learning by teaching technique and those obtained by students who were taught traditionally using a teacher-centered approach. The experimental group consisted of 22 students who were taught pedagogical content knowledge, i.e. English Language Testing, traditionally for half of the semester and then teaching students at another university afterward. The control group consisted of 24 students who were taught language testing traditionally by the same instructor for the whole semester. Both groups were given a test to measure their content knowledge achievement; one test at the beginning of the semester and one at the end of the semester. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the two groups’ scores, and find out how the differences in the scores was affected by the type of instruction. The results showed that there was significant evidence that the students’ scores improved significantly in both groups. However, the difference in test scores between pre-test and post-test did not depend on the type of instruction. Because the experimental group could achieve the same performance as those of the control group regardless of the shorter instruction period, it can be concluded that learning by teaching has potential as an effective method for teaching pedagogical content knowledge. Suggestions for possible modifications of this technique are discussed in this paper.</p> Usman Kasim, Asnawi Muslem, Faisal Mustafa Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Dogme Approach: A Radical Perspective in Second Language Teaching in the Post-Methods Era <p>This paper aims to make a critical discussion of Dogme ELT, an innovative pedagogy in English language teaching first developed by Thornbury (2000). This paper first provides a comprehensive review of second language acquisition and pedagogical theories as well as post-methods era perspectives in English language teaching. After that, the authors discuss different aspects of Dogme ELT and figure out the room for Dogme ELT in English language teaching in the post-methods era. Dogme ELT is rooted in a conglomerate of compatible theories in second language learning and teaching. The most noticeable perspective may be that the language teachers should not rely mainly on prescribed coursebooks, but teach design tasks based on learners’ problems and interests. There should be more studies on various aspects of Dogme ELT, although it satisfies most, if not all, basic principles in English language teaching theoretically. The authors also figure out gaps in research and recommendations for English language teachers and learners.</p> Quang Nguyen Nhat, Hung Bui Phu Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Students, the Local and the Foreign: Drama of Identity and Language in Mongolian-English Bilingual Schools <p>Education in bilingual schools aims to equip learners with balanced bilingualism, increased (bi)cultural capital and a global mindset. Nevertheless, in a growing number of countries only local children attend such institutions, where foreign teachers are the almost exclusive manifestations of ‘globalness’. Dynamics among foreign and local teachers and students shape learners’ attitudes, their learning outcome and identity formation to an unexpected degree. This often produces unhealthy perceptions and behaviour towards among the groups and the taught languages as well, eventually students not benefiting from bilingual education to the expected extent, if at all. &nbsp;One of the oldest and one of the newest bilingual schools in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were observed for this study. Local and foreign teachers of these schools contributed with their experiences in the form of unstructured interviews, while classroom observations shed light on students’ attitudes. The findings reveal that students respect local educators more and display more respect and discipline with them. However, pupils are usually more emotionally attached to foreign teachers, confiding in them and seeking their company on a daily basis, yet refusing to be disciplined and to study for their classes. Students’ unbalanced attitudes towards the two groups of teachers generated unease between the educators as well. This paradox created an unhealthy milieu in the schools and discouraged the development of a healthy perspective on (foreign) languages and identity. Teachers’ attitudes further compromised learners’ behaviour, as local educators stressed nationalism, while foreigners pressed towards the development of a more global mentality. Unfortunately, as none of the institutions had any policies to address this dilemma, eventually students developed behaviours contrary to the intended by the schools.</p> Flora Komlosi-Ferdinand Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Attitudes toward the Use of Project-Based Learning: A Case Study of Vietnamese High School Students <p>It is universally acknowledged that project-based learning (PBL) plays a fundamental role in language teaching and the learning process. In some developed countries with advanced education, PBL has been applied to language teaching and learning widely and effectively. However, in the context of Vietnam, PBL is unlikely to be viewed as an integral approach to enhance students’ self-directed abilities in their learning. This paper aimed at investigating EFL high school students’ attitudes towards PBL when they implemented PBL with the new English textbooks at Bui Thi Xuan High School in Vietnam. This study involved one hundred and fifty-five EFL high school students in answering the questionnaire and forty students in responding to semi-structured interview questions. The quantitative data were processed by SPSS in terms of descriptive statistics (means, standard deviation, and frequency), and content analysis was used for analyzing the qualitative data. The findings of the study showed that EFL high school students expressed positive attitudes (i.e. cognition, affection, and behavior) toward PBL. The data from the semi-structured interview were coded and analyzed to make the results of the study clearer. These preliminary findings are hoped to contribute to a better understanding of the current perspectives of applying PBL into language learning in the Vietnamese context so that practical implications should be made in order to enhance the quality of teaching in English language education in Da Lat specifically and Vietnam in general.</p> Thao Quoc Tran, Tu Ngoc Phan Tran Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Factors Affecting Students’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs in Moroccan Higher Education <p>Self-efficacy, or confidence in one’s ability to do a task, is a key element that affects students’ motivation and performance. For that reason, the main purpose of this study was to collect specific information about students’ self-efficacy and factors affecting it. This includes comparing the differences between three Moroccan universities representing public and private institutions in terms of students’ self-efficacy. A sample of 365 undergraduate students responded to the questionnaire on self-efficacy for self-regulated learning on a 5-point Likert scale. The findings demonstrate that students' level of self-efficacy is moderate. With regard to the differences between the three universities, a slight difference was found in favor of the private one. Meanwhile, third-year students reported greater self-efficacy than first and second-year students. However, no statistically significant differences were found between male and female students. More importantly, the results reveal that students’ living circumstances during the academic year and their initial motive behind enrolling in university affected their self-efficacy beliefs. Overall, this study provides teachers and practitioners with insights about self-efficacy that could be used to promote students’ success in Moroccan universities.</p> Otmane Omari, Mohammed Moubtassime, Driss Ridouani Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Language of Praise in Russian Students’ Evaluation of Teaching <p>Recent decades have seen a dramatic rise in student evaluation of teaching (SET). However, they have overwhelmingly focused on quantitative ratings, neglecting students’ written feedback. This study addresses the lack of qualitative research on SET by applying a semantic theory and computational methods for analysing the language of positive feedback comments provided by students of the Higher School of Economics (HSE) in Russia. Analysing a corpus of student commentary about teaching also contributes to the theory of pragmatics as the approach to analysing qualitative evaluations of teaching is based on the premise that students’ positive feedback can be treated as a sort of the compliment/praise speech act reflecting cultural specificity. Our findings showed that quantitatively the most common semantic pattern used by HSE students is ACTOR + (AUGMENTOR) EVALUATOR + PHYSICAL/MENTAL ACTION PERFORMED BY THE ACTOR + (AUGMENTOR) EVALUATOR. Thus, HSE students tend to praise the teacher more often than the other components of the teaching process and the teacher’s behaviour, thoughts, and feelings are viewed as more important than skills and speech.</p> Irina S. Morozova, Aleksey A. Chusovlyankin, Elena A. Smolianina, Tatyana M. Permyakova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of the English Article System in Developing Dialogical Context: A View from Russian Science <p>A common issue arising in international scientific communication concerns the use of zero-, indefinite- and definite articles in English. While existing pedagogical approaches are successfully used to teach near-native competency in the use of English articles, the final stage of native-equivalent competency continues to evade even advanced ESL / EAP students, especially those whose first language (e.g. Russian) does not possess articles. Therefore, the present work is aimed at developing a conceptual approach to article use based on a consideration of the development of context in scientific communication. A literature review of some existing theoretical approaches shows a clear development from semantic and transformational-grammatical attitudes towards more pragmatic explicatory strategies based on dialogic communication. A qualitative content analysis of article errors appearing in the text of research papers written by Russian scientists and corrected by a native English editor revealed the presence of nine major article-related error types, of which the use of zero article with singular NPs instead of the definite article (SxØ√D) was the most common. NPs in sentences containing article errors were also evaluated according to Bickerton’s NP semantic function typology, Hawkins’ location theory and Liu and Gleason’s major types. The hypothesis that Russian scientists, being highly educated, would generally tend to overuse the, a and an in an overcompensation for the tendency of less-well-educated Russians to drop articles when using English was not confirmed by the results of the content analysis. The analysis of article-use error types appearing in different sections of an IMRaD research paper showed that errors related to the overuse and underuse of the definite article the are particularly characteristic of the Introduction section. However, the largest number of article-related errors were found in the Discussion section, where the SxØ√D error significantly outweighed other error types as compared with other sections. While existing conceptual approaches to explicating the function of the English article system have limited utility, a comprehensive system has yet to be developed. The authors recommend a dialogic approach for teaching the English article system to non-native speakers in the context of scientific communication.</p> Thomas A. Beavitt , Natalia G. Popova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Seven Deadly Sins: Culture’s Effect on Scholarly Editing and Publishing <p>The opinion piece aims to draw readers’ attention to the effects cultures other than English-related ones exert on the processes of scholarly editing and publishing. Non-Anglophone writers with little academic English skills or a weak command of English tend to face desk-rejections or very difficult and time-consuming rounds of edits and revisions. Second-language researchers often are biased toward national schools of thought with the most prominent international research ignored. Such authors are unaware of the recent developments in their field on a global scale and are sometimes prone to misunderstanding scientific and academic genres in the internationally accepted mode. Non-Anglophone writers are also inclined toward native-language patterns of thought and, consequently, rhetorical schemas different from English. Such second-language researchers may have their specific understanding of ethics and criticism, responding to the latter in an unexpectedly harsh way. This combination of factors can lead to unoriginal, vague, unimportant, and unacceptable submissions to international journals, resulting in failures to disseminate their research globally. The authors share their approaches to curbing unpleasant and inefficient experiences for second-language contributors, editors, and reviewers.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Qualities of a Good and Effective Teacher: Slovak EFL Pre-Service and In-Service Teachers’ Perspectives <p>A plethora of researchers have attempted to examine the characteristics of a good and effective teacher in order to enhance the process of teaching foreign languages. In line with those explorations, this study aims at performing a comparison between Slovak pre-service EFL (English as a foreign language) teachers’ and Slovak in-service EFL teachers’ perceptions of a good and effective language teacher. To achieve this objective, a convenient sample of Slovak university EFL students who were pre-service teachers (n = 74) and Slovak lower-secondary and upper-secondary school teachers (n = 63) were employed in the study. Using a 57-item Likert-type questionnaire, independent-samples t-tests were conducted to investigate the potential differences between the perceptions of the pre-service teachers and in-service teachers. Moreover, the 10 highest-mean and 10 lowest-mean items of both groups were analyzed. The research results revealed that statistically significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were detected in only 12 of the 57 items. Furthermore, a closer examination of the differences and the items with the highest and lowest means indicated that the pre-service teacher participants favored traditional teaching more than their in-service teacher counterparts, who preferred CLT (Communicative Language Teaching) to a greater extent. The potential implications of these findings indicate that the fundamental principles of CLT such as employing plenty of pair-work and group-work activities, facilitating learners’ autonomy and responsibility for their own learning, or varying classroom interaction strategies deserve more careful attention during pre-service teacher training.</p> Rastislav Metruk Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Challenges Facing Female English Language Teachers in Secondary Schools in Jordan <p>This study aimed to identify the obstacles facing female secondary teachers of English in Al-Qaser Directorate of Education in Al-Karak, Jordan. For the purpose of the study, a quantitative approach was adopted. The sample was randomly selected and included 170 female English language teachers. A questionnaire consisting of 29 items covering five domains was administered and 150 questionnaires were returned. The results showed that these teachers faced many academic challenges and obstacles in various domains, such as in the student, community, and parent domains, as well as teacher skills, curriculum, and school environment domains. The results also revealed that there were statistically significant differences in the challenges and obstacles faced by the teachers in terms of the experience variable. The study, thus, recommends adopting a more effective strategy to improve the school environment and having a suitable psychological context for female English teachers in order to enhance the quality of the students’ learning outcomes.</p> Khloud Al-Bdeerat, Basil Alqarraleh, Abdel Rahman Mitib Altakhaineh Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring EFL Teachers’ Classroom Management: The Case of Indonesian Remote Secondary Schools <p>Geared by the scant number of studies on EFL teachers’ classroom management in remote secondary schools in Indonesia, this study seeks to investigate teachers’ involvement in classroom management complexities and to what extent they deal with such predicaments. Data were collected through interviews with the teachers within three months and analyzed narratively. The findings suggest that they encountered multi-facet complexities such as (a) lacking learning facilities in terms of electricity supply, (b) students’ demotivation and inability to use English, and (c) teachers' dilemmas in applying the new curriculum. To deal with such quandaries, the teachers made use of (a) a teacher-centered approach, (b) group learning, (c) students’ row seating positions, and (d) non-integrated language skills learning. The implications of this study are discussed at the end of the paper.</p> Kaspul Anwar, M. Faruq Ubaidillah, Urip Sulistiyo Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Successful Global Collaborations in Higher Education Institutions. Abdulrahman AI-Youbi, Adnan H. M. Zahed, William G. Tierney (Eds.), Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2020. 93 p. ISBN 978-3-030-25524-4 ISBN 978-3-030-25525-1 (ebk) Baiba Briede Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Analyzing Digital Discourse. New Insights and Future Directions. Edited by Patricia Bou-Franch and Pilar Garcés Conejos Blitvich (2019). ISBN 978-3-319-92663-6 (pbk) Anastasia Lazareva Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Teaching is Not Always Easy: Mexican Pre-service English Teachers’ Beliefs on Teaching and Learning <p>One of the main goals of language teacher education programs is to prepare professionals who can respond to the growing demands of society for quality instruction.&nbsp; However, we often find that training in current theories and methods has limited impact on pre-service teachers’ long established beliefs and ultimately on their practice. The purpose of this qualitative interpretative study is to explore the conceptual metaphors (Lakoff and Johnson, 2008) used by pre-service teachers when writing their teaching philosophy as a way of unveiling their underlying cognitive mappings. We propose that making future teachers aware of the entrenched metaphors they use to talk about teaching and learning might be a first step in changing their observable behavior. The results of this study show that in spite of exposure to current theories on teaching and learning, pre-service teachers tend to keep outdated theories. This work in conjunction with other strategies will help teacher trainers to foster integration of current ideas about teaching and learning in their students and to recognize their role in improving language education.</p> Ana Cecilia Villarreal Ballesteros, Irlanda Olave Moreno, Lizette Drusila Flores Delgado Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Second Language Teaching and Teacher Education in Diverse Contexts Phu Hung Bui, Tatiana A. Baranovskaya Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Wed, 30 Sep 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Language Attitudes and L2 Motivation of Korean Language Learners in Malaysia <p>This study examined relationships between language attitudes and L2 motivation of learners of Korean as a Foreign Language (KFL) in a large public university in Malaysia. It employed the socio-educational model of L2 motivation and focused on the relationship between the language learners’ attitudes toward speakers of the target language and their motivation to learn Korean. A systematic statistical analysis was performed to analyse the data collected from 19 (<em>N</em>=19) students. A robust statistical procedure adopted in this study allowed some worthwhile insights into the language attitudes–L2 motivation nexus. The findings indicated that there existed a statistically significant relationship between the language learners’ instrumental orientation and their attitudes toward the speakers of Korean language.</p> Larisa Nikitina, Fumitaka Furuoka, Nurliana Kamaruddin Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A Comparative Study of Saudi and International Journals of Applied Linguistics: The Move–Bundle Connection Approach <p>The present study implemented a genre-based approach to analyze the rhetorical structure of English language research articles (RAs): specifically, the Introduction-Methods-Results-Discussion-Conclusion (I-M-R-D-C) sections. Next, lexical bundles (LBs) associated with patterns of moves were identified by applying a corpus-driven approach. The study analyzed two corpora of 30 RAs purposely selected from 16 peer-reviewed journals of applied linguistics published in Saudi Arabia and internationally during the years of 2011-2016. First, a genre-based approach was used to identify the move structures of RAs through analyzing different RA sections by different models. Next, lexical bundles associated with each identified move in each IMRDC section were analyzed using a corpus-driven approach, based on structural and functional taxonomies. The study findings showed that both corpora share similarities and differences related to rhetorical structures and lexical bundles. These findings have pedagogical implications for novice writers, graduate students, and English for Academic Purposes (EAP) instruction, including raising awareness of rhetorical structures and LBs in academic writing for publication, which could help produce more successful publishable research articles.</p> Basim Alamri Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 L2 Motivation, Demographic Variables, and Chinese Proficiency among Adult Learners of Chinese <p>The present research explored L2 motivation, demographic variables and Chinese proficiency among adult learners of Chinese as a second language. A total of 83 international students studying in a Chinese university in Beijing answered the 54-item L2MSS questionnaire and a Demographic Questionnaire. Analyses of the data revealed the following findings: a) the L2MSS scales were significantly highly related to one another and highly reliable, b) ideal L2 self was significantly correlated with gender and the number of foreign languages learned (NFLL); integrativeness was significantly positively related to NFLL, c) the whole sample, as well as male and female participants, scored high on all L2MSS scales and had (great) motivation to study Chinese, d) female respondents held significantly more favorable perceptions of their ideal selves than their male peers, and e) L2SSM had no predictive effect or interactive effect with demographic variables on the students’ Chinese proficiency. Nevertheless, length of stay in China and gender proved to be powerful positive predictors for the latter. Evidently, the L2MSS scales are important dimensions of L2 motivation and closely related to second/foreign language learning. Understandably, it is necessary to continuously explore, understand and enhance students’ L2 motivation.</p> Meihua Liu Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Modeling Student Evaluations of Writing and Authors as a Function of Writing Errors <p>Writers are often judged by their audience, and these evaluations can encompass both the text and the authors. This study built upon prior research on writing evaluation and error perceptions to examine how interconnected or separable are these judgments. Using a within-subjects design, college students evaluated four essays demonstrating no errors, lower-level errors, higher-level errors, or both types. Evaluations included writing quality traits (e.g., conventions, ideas, organization, sentence fluency, and voice) and author characteristics (e.g., creativity, intelligence, generosity, and kindness). Exploratory factor analyses identified latent constructs within these ratings. One construct, Writing Quality and Skill, appeared to combine writing traits and authors’ intellectual ability (e.g., intelligence and knowledgeability). The second construct, Author Personality, seemed to comprise interpersonal author traits (e.g., kindness and loyalty). The two constructs were significantly and positively correlated. These results suggest that students tended to form holistic impressions of writing quality and authors rather than distinct judgments about individual traits. The spillover onto perceptions of authors’ personal characteristics may be representative of latent biases. Student raters were also more sensitive to lower-level errors than higher-level errors. Implications for biases and training related to peer assessment are discussed.</p> Rod Roscoe, Joshua Wilson, Melissa Patchan, Dandan Chen, Adam Johnson Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Trilinguals' Identity Synergism Through Pragmatic Skills <p>Recent studies on bilingualism and pragmatics paid little attention to trilingual speakers. This investigation examined the trilinguals' identity synergism by drawing on their linguistic repertoire and discursive identity through pragmatic skills. For this purpose, twenty advanced EFL learners with Persian and Turkish as their mother tongues were homogenized through IELTS and played roles in Persian, Turkish, and English languages. For modeling, three monolingual native speakers of the English language responded to the English version of written discourse completion tests taken from the same role-plays. The data underwent content analysis to extract and codify the themes. The results revealed a synergy among the trilinguals' discursive systems when performing apology, complaint, refusal, and request speech acts. Multidirectional transfers among the trilinguals' Turkish, Persian, and English languages developed a form of English communication that was different from that of the native speakers' model. Gestures and mimes were the non-verbal strategies employed more in the trilinguals' Turkish and English languages than their Persian. This study helps researchers and teachers gain insight into identity, pragmatics, and multilingualism.</p> Esmaeel Ali Salimi, Hadi Abedi Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety Scale: Preliminary Tests of Validity and Reliability <p>Although anxiety in the foreign language learning context has been studied extensively, the anxiety experienced by foreign language teachers, who are important stakeholders of classroom contexts and language learners themselves, seems to be overlooked. While research mainly focuses on foreign language anxiety in a learning context, there is not sufficient research to contextualize foreign language teaching anxiety (FLTA). In addition, in the current literature, few studies were performed to measure FLTA. In light of this, this study aims to present the preliminary results of the validity and reliability of the Foreign Language Teaching Anxiety Scale (FLTAS). A background questionnaire and the FLTAS were administered to 100 senior pre-service teachers of English as a foreign language (EFL), before performing Cronbach’s Alpha and exploratory factor analysis. The findings showed that the scale obtains a high reliability coefficient and internal consistency in a five-factor solution. The study ends with recommendations for further research.</p> Selami Aydin, Ozgehan Ustuk Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A Comparison of EFL Fifth Graders’ Vocabulary Acquisition through Skype Videoconferencing and Face-to-face Picture Book Storytelling <p>This quasi-experimental study explores the relative efficacy of computer-mediated communication (CMC) and face-to-face picture book storytelling for promoting young EFL learners’ English word acquisition. Thirty-two young EFL learners participated in a 40-minute story session in the two aforementioned modes. Receptive and productive word gains were assessed through immediate and delayed receptive vocabulary tests and productive story recall tests. To better explain how the CMC and face-to-face settings affected the participants’ word gains, their involvement in the two types of storytelling settings was evaluated using an involvement load survey. The results show that the participants’ task involvement was higher in the face-to-face setting than the CMC setting, which led to better word gains. Within each setting, high-involvement participants’ word gain was better than that of their low-involvement counterparts. However, the difference between high-involvement and low-involvement participants was only manifest in the receptive word gains for the participants in the CMC setting, but not the productive word gains. These findings suggest that face-to-face storytelling might be the more effective setting when picture book storytelling is adopted to promote EFL young learners’ word gains, especially for receptive word gains.</p> Hsing-Hui Chiu, Chin-Fen Chen Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Indonesian Language Learning Methods in Australian Elementary Schools <p>Previous studies have largely focused on the importance, problems, and challenges of teaching second languages in Australian schools, but very few have investigated the teaching methods used in the classroom to do so. &nbsp;Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify the methods applied by teachers who teach Indonesian as a second language in one of the public primary schools in South Australia to enable their Australian students to comprehend the instruction in the Indonesian class. The data were collected through observational field notes and video recordings of three class meetings from two teachers. Evidence gives validity to analysis, and thus the data were analysed using the transcription conventions as proposed by Burns, Joyce &amp; Gollin (1996). The results showed that the most frequently used methods by the teachers in teaching Indonesian to the Early Year level students were TPR (total physical response) and GTM (grammar-translation method). TPR was useful as the act of moving around seemed to help the children remember the vocabulary. Furthermore, GTM helped the teachers clarify the meanings of words and sentences for the students by translating them into their first language, i.e. English. These methods were not taught in isolation but were integrated by the teachers with other methods such as the direct method and audio-lingual method. The reflection of this teaching practice is considered a worthwhile contribution for other teachers who are also teaching Indonesian in other countries and as additional insights to immerse themselves in their language teaching practice. Moreover, considering the benefits of becoming bilingual, such as in communication, culture, cognition, character, curriculum, and economy, schools should provide more training for teachers to help them be able to use the best techniques in teaching the second language to enable and empower them to integrate other languages into their classes.</p> Rahmi Fhonna, Yunisrina Qismullah Yusuf Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship between Iranian EFL Learners’ Emotional Intelligence and Metacognitive Reading Strategies Use <p>Although emotional intelligence (EI) and metacognitive strategies have been addressed by different researchers across the globe, the relationship between EI and the use of metacognitive reading strategies by L2 learners needs further exploration. To fill this gap, at least partially, the present study investigated the relationship between emotional intelligence and the use of metacognitive reading strategies by EFL learners. Based on the convenience sampling method, 119 Iranian EFL learners across the age range of 18-27 were selected as the earlier subjects. These subjects were then homogenized through the administration of the PET reading test, which reduced the number of the participants to 102 intermediate EFL. The main instruments included Bar-On's (1997) Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire and Mokhtari and Sheorey’s (2002) Survey of Reading Strategies Questionnaire (SORS) that measured metacognitive reading strategies use. The results revealed a moderate and positive correlation between a) emotional intelligence and the use of metacognitive reading strategies; b) <em>intrapersonal</em> <em>skills</em>, <em>interpersonal</em> <em>skills</em>, <em>adaptability</em>, and <em>general</em> <em>mood</em> and <em>global</em> metacognitive strategies; c) <em>intrapersonal</em> <em>skills</em>, <em>interpersonal</em> <em>skills</em>, and <em>general</em> <em>mood</em> and <em>problem-solving</em> metacognitive strategies; and d) <em>intrapersonal skills</em>, <em>interpersonal skills</em>, and <em>general mood</em> and <em>support</em> metacognitive strategies. Furthermore, multiple regression analysis results indicated that the EI scales of <em>general mood</em> and <em>interpersonal skills</em> significantly contributed to the prediction of the use of metacognitive reading strategies by EFL learners.</p> Seyed Hesamuddin Aliasin, Samira Abbasi Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Increasing EFL Learner Participation through Eliciting Language: Insights from Conversation Analysis <p>The idea that interaction shapes learning in the second language classroom by increasing opportunities for participation, and that teachers can achieve this by adequately eliciting language from learners has been discussed in the literature. However, research specifying interactional resources deployed by teachers when eliciting language from their learners has been scarce. To this end, the present study used conversation analysis to examine the interactional resources produced in the elicitation of questions belonging to a specific lesson stage, namely, the ‘classroom context mode’ (CCM). In the CCM, fluency and meaningful exchanges are encouraged, and learners are prompted to talk about their feelings, emotions, and experiences, which represent a fruitful interactional juncture for eliciting learner language. The data collected in the present study come from four teachers and their students in an adult English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom at a language institute in Chile. The participants were audio-recorded over a total of six lessons that were delivered as part of a 10-week course. From the analysis, two novel elicitation resources, namely the ‘effective management of closed questions’ and the ‘use of open referential questions as initiators of CCM’, were found to promote a facilitator-oriented approach to teaching. The pedagogical value of these resources is discussed in terms of their potential for initiating and sustaining a CCM, and their inclusion in a framework that seeks to develop teachers’ classroom interactional competence.</p> Marco Cancino Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Margaret Cargill and Sally Burgess (Eds.), Publishing Research in English as an Additional Language: Practices, Pathways and Potentials. Adelaide: The University of Adelaide Press, 2017; 260 pp., ISBN 9781925261523 (hbk) Hamed Barjesteh, Elham Movafagh Ardestani, Ahmad Modaberi Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Intercultural Competence in the Eyes of State School English Language Teachers in Turkey <p>Equipping students with intercultural competence (hereafter IC) is a critical aim of English foreign language classrooms nowadays, and EFL teachers have emerged as essential players for accomplishing this. These teachers should essentially be competent in their intercultural skills so that they can pass these on to their students in order to foster interculturally competent language learners. However, teachers' perceptions regarding IC remain uncertain, particularly in the Turkish context. Thus, before asking teachers to apply methods and strategies so that they can enhance students’ IC in the classroom, it is vital that we investigate what they understand about IC. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to reveal middle and high school teachers’ understanding of the IC phenomenon and their description of the characteristics of an interculturally competent foreign language learner and teacher. In addition, teachers’ perceptions regarding their own and their learners’ IC were also explored in this study. The participants were 30 middle and high school English language teachers teaching at state schools in Turkey. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect the data. MAXQDA was exploited in order to analyse the data, primarily to code, categorize, and systematize the findings. The results indicated that the teachers considered IC to be the ability to communicate with people from various cultures effectively, having knowledge about one’s own, target, and other cultures, and developing positive attitudes toward other cultures and societies. They also emphasized the inseparability of language and culture and the importance of English as an international language. The teachers also indicated why they viewed themselves and their learners as interculturally competent or incompetent, which could provide insight into where to start intercultural learning and teaching in foreign language classrooms and how to train EFL teachers about different dimensions of IC.</p> Nur Gedik Bal, Perihan Savas Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Teacher-research: Agency of Practical Knowledge and Professional Development <p>Educational research has generally attracted negative criticisms for its generalisability, contextual independence and inadequacy in addressing teachers’ practical problems in their own educational settings. Moreover, as classrooms are always complicated, teachers are therefore encouraged to become active researchers of their own classrooms in order to maximize their instructional performance and provide optimal learning opportunities for their students within their particular context. To promote teachers’ self-inquiry into their own practices, this paper will first define what teacher research is, followed by the arguments for its need and significance in the teaching profession. Suggestions to help teachers become engaged into classroom inquiry are provided after difficulties commonly reported to be encountered by teacher-researchers are reviewed. This paper is expected to provide some considerable insights for classroom-teachers as well as school administrators in their search for practical, concrete and contextually-rich knowledge.</p> Thi Thuy Loan Nguyen Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Overcoming Cultural Barriers to Scholarly Communication in International Peer-Reviewed Journals <p>The editorial dwells upon the challenges L2 scientific authors have to rise to. ‘Publish or perish’ policy pursued globally leads to an increased international market of predatory journals in response to persisting university requirements to academics’ publications in international journals. The quality issues of scholarly publications are coming to the fore, with re-focusing on skills and competencies necessary to produce research acceptable to high-tier and well-established journals. Non-Anglophone L2 writers face more barriers to English-language international periodicals than native speakers of English, as they tend to follow distinct cultural patterns of thought. Consequently, rhetorical moves and steps of scholarly texts may substantially differ from those written by Anglophone researchers. The scholarly community has to handle a growing set of problems related to L2 scholarly writing in English to ensure their successful submissions to well-established international journals.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Natalie Reid, Getting Published in International Journals: Writing Strategies for European Social Scientists (2nd ed.). Albuquerque: Professional Publications Press, 2018; 301 pp., ISBN: 978-0-682-92995-7 (pbk). Tatiana Golechkova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 30 Jun 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Use of Nonlinear Dynamic Motivational Strategies to Manage L2 Academic Entitlement and Psychological Reactance <p>Expanding the dynamicity and nonlinearity of L2 motivation introduced by Bahari (2019a) based on the complex dynamics systems theory has served as the theoretical framework to introduce and contextualize nonlinear dynamic motivational strategies (NDMSs). The present study used the NDMSs to manage L2 academic entitlement and psychological reactance as two obstructive factors in the L2 learning-teaching process. For conceptualization purposes, a mixed methods approach was conducted among teachers as well as learners to examine the effectiveness of proposed strategies as a pedagogical tool to manage and minimize these obstructive factors in academic contexts. The observed effectiveness of the NDMSs at managing and minimizing the analyzed obstructive factors along with replacing teacher-centered and test-oriented L2 classrooms with a learner-friendly motivating L2 classroom has significant pedagogical and theoretical implications. The major finding of the study following a rigorous methodological triangulation of the data that was collected confirms the effectiveness of the NDMSs as an L2 teaching strategy to cater to the diversity of individual differences for the purpose of improving teacher-learner interactions. Drawing on the results, it can be safely concluded that the NDMSs as the independent variable of the study showed significant impact on managing and minimizing academic entitlement and psychological reactance.</p> Akbar Bahari Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 A Case Study of Vietnamese EFL Teachers’ Conception of Language Output and Interaction <p>There exists a gap between what second language acquisition research has to say and what teachers do in the classroom. As part of an attempt to bridge this gap, this study is driven by the motive to understand how pedagogical innovations such as task-based language instruction can be influenced by teacher beliefs. Drawing on the perspective of research on teachers’ thinking which aims to inform language teaching pedagogy and teacher education, the study employed multiple data sources (focus group, lesson plan, and stimulated recall interview) to tap into the conception of six Vietnamese EFL instructors regarding language output and interaction. Cross-case analysis showed that most of the teachers geared language output and interaction activities towards achieving a targeted linguistic aim. Further analysis revealed that this view reflects a synthetic, product-oriented conception of teaching and learning by skill-building, and is in line with traditional approaches which emphasise transmission style and form instruction. This finding implies that constructivist perspectives on teaching such as task-based language instruction may run counter to teachers’ existing conception of teaching. The implementation of task-based instruction thus needs to consider negotiating between supporting teachers to focus on meaning and the need for form-focused instruction.</p> Loi Nguyen Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Container Image Schema as the Conceptual Basis of English Adjectives’ Semantics <p>This paper focuses on the cognitive foundation of the semantics of English adjectives that denote mental and moral characteristics of human beings. Research into these adjectives seems a challenging task because they denote abstract qualities that cannot be perceived through vision, hearing, or touch; and here a question arises: How are abstract qualities interpreted in English encoded through adjectives? To answer it, this study follows the idea of two-level semantics, i.e. word semantics is treated as a two-level phenomenon that comprises the semantic (external) level and the conceptual (deep) one. This study is the first to address adjectival semantics from this perspective. Here a novel approach to revealing the cognitive foundation of adjectives is introduced: given that adjectives originated from old syncretic items and a word cognitive model forms at the moment of word creation, cognitive models underlying adjectives' semantics are unearthed via analysis of their etymological data. Our contribution is two-fold. First, the approach has revealed that the image schema CONTAINER guides semantics of an array of various adjectives independent of their morphemic structure or date of origin. The examples demonstrate that abstract human qualities are interpreted via the following container features: boundary, container substance, size, hardness/softness of a container shell, etc. The semantics of affixed or compound adjectives appear to stem from the integration of concepts represented by an affix and a root or two roots, respectively. Second, the findings show that the value given to every container feature appears to predetermine the evaluation conveyed by an adjective. Container features tend to possess ambivalent value, realizing the positive or negative one due to the interaction with a frame in which the CONTAINER is incorporated, therefore the same polysemantic adjective may develop both positive and negative meanings. To reveal the whole inventory of cognitive models that govern adjectival semantics in English, further research needs to be conducted.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Marina Antonova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Factors Preventing in-service University English Language Teachers from Becoming Action Researchers in Pakistan <p>Research suggests that TR enables classroom teachers to address their classroom-specific problems without having to rely too heavily on published research. However, despite the fact that TR narratives of language teachers have increased lately, there is still need for studies investigating the perceptions of university English language (EL) teachers about TR, and exploring the factors affecting their engagement with TR in culturally diverse contexts. The current study was designed to explore the perceptions of university EL practitioners about the factors that inhibit or encourage them to engage in TR in a university context in Pakistan. Data were obtained from fifteen EL teachers from four public sector universities through semi-structured interviews. Results show that teachers appeared to possess only simplistic knowledge of research as an activity aimed at finding something new. While a majority admitted to have done no research, even the engagement of others who claimed to have done some research seemed sporadic and less than systematic. The main factors responsible for teachers’ dis-engagement from TR included academic culture, management’s attitude, power relations between senior and junior faculty, workload, lack of monetary benefits, and large classes. A number of implications have also been discussed.</p> Hassan Syed Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Rapid Changes in Foreign Language Learning Anxiety Caused by a Multiplicity of Topics: An Idiodynamic Approach <p>Considering the dynamicnature of foreign language anxiety (FLA), we applied an idiodynamic method to explore topic-based variations of FLA. Before the study was conducted, a class of 20 female intermediate English as foreign language learners were assessed using the foreign language classroom anxiety scale (FLCAS). Two low-anxiety learners and two high-anxiety learners were selected to participate in this study. The idiodynamic method involved videotaping the participants’ responses to four topic-based questions, their self-ratings of fluctuations in FLA while answering the questions, and drawing attributions for topic-based changes in FLA. The results demonstrated both within-individual and between-individual stability and variation in FLA. Linguistic block, topic familiarity, topic interest, and topic-related emotional loading were revealed as the major factors affecting the dynamics of FLA. The pedagogical implications of the findings are discussed.</p> Khatereh Saghafi, Majid Elahi Shirvan Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Corpus Linguistics for Vocabulary: A guide for Research by Paweł Szudarsk. Routledge Publications 2018. 239 pp. ISBN: 978-1-138-18721-4 Vahid Pahlevansadegh , Mehrdad Vasheghani Farahani Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Euphemisms of Corruption among Students of Higher Institutions in South West Nigeria <p>Corruption is a pervasive practice in Nigeria that is commonly associated with government officials who divert public funds for private use, while minimal attention is paid to acts of corruption in the educational sector. This study, which is part of research on how language is used to drive and conceal corruption in Nigeria, aims at revealing some corrupt practices in Nigerian higher institutions that are concealed because of the euphemistic language used by students to describe and help perpetuate corrupt practices in their relationships with academic and non-academic staff of different institutions. Four institutions of higher education in south-west Nigeria were purposively selected and focus group discussions were conducted with 54 conveniently selected students of these institutions to collect qualitative data on the explanation of linguistic codes derived from the first phase of this study. The findings revealed extensive usage of ‘runs’ as a superordinate code for diverse acts of corruption including: sex for marks, cash for marks, sex/cash for grade alterations, examination malpractice, and the use of fake documents. Parents and guardians need to listen closely to the language of students in higher education for early detection of assimilation and acceptance of corrupt practices as a way of life.</p> Olumuyiwa K. Ojo, Olusola Ayandele, Sunday A. Egbeleye Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 An Investigation of the Relationship between Global Perspective and Willingness to Communicate in English in a Chinese University Context <p>In an era of increasing global connectivity, acquiring a global perspective (GP) and being able to communicate in English are important for both personal and professional development. People with a GP are expected to be more willing to engage in intercultural activities, and more willing to communicate in English. Although previous studies have focused on having a GP and willingness to communicate (WTC) in English, few have investigated whether there is a correlation between these two variables. This study, conducted at a Chinese university, aimed to determine the relationship between GP and WTC in English. Data were collected from students via a questionnaire (n = 114) and interviews (n = 7) at the end of the autumn semester in 2018. The findings demonstrate that the students’ GP and their WTC in English through the English curriculum did not progress to a significant extent, and their GP and WTC in English were correlated. Furthermore, three themes that affected the interviewees’ WTC were extracted from the interviews: global cognition, self-actualization, and intercultural experience. These findings suggest that it would be beneficial to learn English by developing a GP, and that educators can enhance students’ WTC by helping them cultivate that perspective.</p> Fan Fang, Runting Chen, Tariq Elyas Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship Between Burnout and Self-Efficacy among Iranian Male and Female EFL Teachers <p>Teaching is a job marked by high levels of burnout. Teacher burnout has been extinsively studied in connection with other important psychological qualities, such as perceived self-efficacy. However, little research has examined this relationship among teachers in the English as a foreign language (EFL) context. In this light, this mixed-method study was intended to a) investigate the relationship between the degree of perceived self-efficacy by Iranian EFL teachers and their professional burnout level, and b) see whether gender could make a significant difference in the teachers’ burnout level. To these ends, 80 male and female Iranian EFL teachers from several high schools in Isfahan, selected through convenience sampling, participated in the study and responded to the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Educator’s Survey (MBI-ES) and a modified version of Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). To triangulate the data, a semi-structured interview was also conducted with 15 teachers. Correlational and t-test data analysis showed that there was a strong significant correlation between the participants’ perceived self-efficacy and their burnout level in a negative direction. The gender variable also had a modifying effect on the teachers’ burnout. Female teachers, in fact, had a lower burnout level. The follow-up interview further confirmed the relationship and revealed the three main themes of mental fatigue, contact avoidance, and stress in explaining teacher burnout. The implications for school administrators and teacher educators are discussed.</p> Ali Roohani, Mehdi Iravani Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Instructional Goal Structure, Gender, and Second Language Motivation Affecting English Language Achievement <p>The study opted to: 1) Investigate differences between cooperative and competitive learning modes in the extent to which they affect English language achievement; 2) Find gender, intra-gender, and inter-gender differences in English language achievement within and across the cooperative, competitive, and control group learning conditions; and 3) Study the relationship between students’ motivation to learn the English language and English language achievement. The cooperative and competitive learning groups were used as treatment groups while the control group was the individualized learning group. An English language test was administered to 120 secondary school grade nine students. The 12-item mini-Attitude/Motivation Test Battery (Mini-AMTB) was administered to the students. Different parametric tests were used in the pre-test and post-test data analysis. Post-test data analysis results revealed that cooperative learners significantly outperformed both competitive learners and the control group, but the control group significantly outperformed competitive learners. The gender difference in English language achievement was not significant. The cooperative learning (CL) mode was favored by both male and female students but more favored by males. The five aggregate measures of the mini-AMTB (Integrativeness, Motivational Intensity, Attitudes towards the Learning Situation, Instrumental Orientation, and Parental Encouragement) produced significant positive correlations with English language achievement; however, Language Anxiety negatively and significantly correlated with English language achievement. The CL mode, with its effective CL technique, was recommended to be researched and applied by trained teachers to improve student achievement. Its implications for teacher training were also given. Treatment of second language motivation was recommended as an important issue in second language learning.</p> Lemecha Geleto Wariyo Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Structure of Cross-Linguistic Differences: Meaning and Context of ‘Readability’ and its Russian Equivalent ‘Chitabelnost’ <p>The article presents the results of an original study aimed at finding (1) frequency fluctuations of the term ‘readability’ in American discourse and its Russian equivalent ‘chitabelnost’ in Russian discourse over the period from 1920s to the present; and (2) semantic similarities and differences between the English term ‘readability’ and its Russian equivalent ‘chitabelnost’ over the same period of time. A contrastive analysis of the words testified to inconsiderable differences in the semantic structures of the terms in the period under study: the term ‘readability’ has been used with the following meanings: (1) ‘the quality of being legible or decipherable’ and (2) ‘the quality of being easy or enjoyable to read’. The Russian equivalent ‘chitabelnost’ has two contemporary meanings similar to the aforementioned English meanings as well as the obsolete ‘library book checkouts’. With the help of the Google NgramViewer, we identified the 1980s frequency peak of both terms when the modern notion of the concepts was formed. The research into the topical context of readability as ‘the quality of being easy or enjoyable to read’ demonstrated empiricist tendencies in American studies focused on two types of parameters, i.e. the ‘objective’ parameters of texts, i.e. sentence length, word counts, number of high/low frequency words, ratio of high/low frequency words to total words, sentence complexity, etc. and ‘individual’ variables affecting a potential reader, such as ‘word familiarity’, cognitive and linguistic abilities, cultural and topic knowledge, etc. The Russian school’s view, until the 1970s, had traditionally been more holistic and ‘biased’ towards an individuals’ factors. The results of the study have the potential to contribute to cross-linguistic research in the area of text readability assessment, semantics, and scientific literature searches.</p> Marina I. Solnyshkina, Elena V. Harkova, Maria B. Kazachkova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Pressure to Publish Internationally: Scholarly Writing Coming to the Fore <p>JLE editors touch upon the trends and challenges arising out of the changing landscape of scholarly communication as well as two sets of major problems non-Anglophone researchers face in publishing their research in international English-language journals. Firstly, if not desk rejected, they encounter continuous revisions of their submissions to such journals. Secondly, English as lingua franca of international scholarly communication may lead to some disengagement of national scholarly elites who essentially publish in English and to a wider national scientific community decoupled from English and limited to their native language communication. Given the challenges, the editorial offers a refined and widened JLE scope regarding language- and education-related issues of scholarly written communication.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 Computerized Group Dynamic Assessment and Listening Comprehension Ability: Does Self-Efficacy Matter? <p>The present study investigated the effect of group dynamic assessment (DA) through software on Iranian intermediate EFL learners’ listening comprehension ability. The main question of the study was whether dynamic assessment via CoolSpeech software had any effect on the listening comprehension ability of learners with high and low self-efficacy. To find the answer, 80 Iranian intermediate learners were selected from among a population of 120, based on their scores on a placement test. A self-efficacy questionnaire was then used to assign selected participants into two experimental groups as low self-efficacious experimental group (n=20) and high self-efficacious experimental group (n=20), as well as two control groups, each containing 20 participants. Next, a pretest of listening comprehension ability was administered to all groups, and no significant difference between their mean scores was observed. After a period of two months, during which the experimental groups received treatment of dynamic assessment through CoolSpeech software and the control groups received a placebo, a posttest of listening comprehension was administered to all groups. The data analysis results revealed that the participants in high self-efficacious experimental group achieved significantly better scores than the other groups. However, in the second experimental group, no significant change was observed, and participants in the second experimental group did not significantly outperform the control group. It was concluded that the group dynamic assessment method via software could have a significant effect on the listening comprehension ability of EFL learners with high self-efficacy.</p> Shahin Abassy Delvand, Davood Mashhadi Heidar Copyright (c) 2020 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 31 Mar 2020 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationship between L1 and L2 Reading Comprehension and Language and Reading Proficiency at the Tertiary Level <p>The importance of reading is especially emphasized nowadays when the majority of information, irrespective of the source (books, daily press, professional literature, web sources, etc.), is primarily accessed via reading. Therefore, effective reading and reading comprehension are important in everyday life, but also in an academic setting. This particularly refers to pre-service preschool and primary school teachers, whose teacher training courses imply a good command of reading skills, but also teaching skills required for the development and teaching of pre-reading and reading skills. In L2 reading, there are additional issues that need to be considered, principally the possibility of skill transfer between the mother tongue and the second/foreign language. Hence, this research aimed to test reading comprehension in both Croatian (L1) and English (L2) languages in a group of university students (N=83), studying to become pre-service preschool and primary school teachers. Reading comprehension tests and a background questionnaire were used as research instruments in this mixed-method research. Contrary to our expectations, reading comprehension test results were fairly low, i.e. out of a total of 17 points, the mean results for the Croatian language reading comprehension test were M=13.6 (SD=2.05), while for the English language reading comprehension test they were M=11.29 (SD=2.24). The results were further correlated with the participants’ self-assessed language knowledge and reading abilities in both languages. A positive correlation was found only between the English language reading comprehension test and the participants’ self-assessed language knowledge and reading ability. Based on the obtained results, it may be proposed that teachers should focus more on developing reading skills and reading comprehension at all levels as well as in all of the languages that the learners are acquiring, especially in view of the proposed possibility of the transfer of skills among languages.</p> Alenka Mikulec, Božica Vuić Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Development of Foreign Language Education in China under the Belt and Road Initiative <p>China’s launch of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) has had profound linguistic implications on its foreign language education policy. Successful foreign language programs are vital to any country’s national security and global interest promotion. An analysis of China’s current foreign language education with the BRI compliance will provide the backdrop for this paper’s suggestions. The challenges and opportunities associated with the development of foreign language education in today’s China will be analyzed under these four aspects: 1) improving in the variety and quality of foreign language education, 2) developing students’ international and intercultural competence, 3) deepening general education in target languages, and 4) strengthening English as the lingua franca for expertise training. Even with the significant progress made thus far since 40 years of “Reform and Opening-up”, China still has a long way to go in developing its national foreign language capacity to serve its expanding national interests for development.</p> Huang Lihe Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring Iranian EFL Learners’ Listening Skills via TED Talks: Does Medium Make a Difference? <p>This quasi-experimental study examined whether TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) talks could improve the listening skills of Iranian EFL learners. The study also explored whether the different media of instruction could have differing impacts on the students’ learning. Sixty intermediate level male learners aged between 18 and 20 in three intact classes (n1=n2=n3=20) were the participants selected through convenience sampling. The groups were randomly assigned to two experimental groups and one control group after ensuring that they were at the same level of language proficiency. One of the experimental groups watched TED talks via mobile devices, another group watched them through laptops, and the control group practiced listening through DVDs and CDs of the course textbook (American File 2) for ten sessions. It is worth mentioning that the mobile group watched the videos outside of the class, whereas the laptop and control groups practiced listening in the class. Every session, the participants answered some comprehension questions to enable the researchers to measure their development. The repeated measures ANOVA showed the improvement of the listening skills of all participants in the three groups during the treatment. The results of the one-way ANOVA and post hoc comparison revealed statistically significant differences between the mobile group watching the TED talks and the control group, but no differences were found between the mobile group and the laptop group or between the control and the laptop groups. The researchers inferred that the observed difference was due to using TED talks via mobile devices in the study. They could also conclude that TED talks are useful sources of practicing listening skills. The study shows the efficacy of self-directed learning via mobile devices and has implications for teachers and practitioners who are seeking ways to extend language learning beyond the confinements of the classroom.</p> Mojgan Rashtchi, Mohammad Reza Tollabi Mazraehno Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of Collaborative Note-Taking in Flipped Learning Contexts <p>While the benefits of shared note-taking during live lectures have been studied, the effects of shared note-taking in e-learning environments merit examination since such courses often feature asynchronous video lectures, allowing students to work together to construct notes over longer periods of time. A study (n=92) was conducted in the context of a flipped scientific writing course at a Korean university to investigate the effects of collaborative online note-taking on student learning. Students in the course were divided into two groups: members of the control were simply directed to view course videos and take notes individually, and members of the experimental group were asked to take collaborative notes in a shared online document. Student learning performance was measured through six online quizzes related to the course video lectures and through six related individual writing assignments. No differences were found in the learning outcomes of the control and the collaborative note-taking groups. However, significantly higher scores on related online quizzes and individual writing assignments were found in groups who took notes actively and for individuals who were major contributors to the group notes.</p> Matthew P. Baldwin, Mik Fanguy, Jamie H. Costley Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Teacher Beliefs about Students’ Use of Cohesion in Writing: What Does the Textual Evidence Reveal? <p>Despite an extensive research base in the domain of analyses for academic writing, a study of how pedagogic perceptions are revealed in students’ actual writing performance is relatively an under-researched area. This study aimed at finding out the relationships between teachers’ beliefs and textual evidence in regard to students’ use of cohesion in academic writing. Structured questionnaire and open-ended interviews were used to gauge teachers’ perceptions about the subject. Cohesion analysis of the samples of students’ academic essays was performed and collated with the teachers’ perceptions. The results revealed statistically significant correlations between pedagogic perceptions as well as between textual manifestations of cohesion use in the sample texts. Both agreement and disagreement were observed between what teachers believed about students’ ability to use cohesion as a text-forming resource and the textual analysis of cohesion. The study proposes a review of pedagogic practices with focus on academic writing literacy as well as a further research initiative with a larger sample to conduct a micro-level analysis of cohesion to be collated with both teachers’ and students’ beliefs.</p> Zulfiqar Ahmad Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Embracing Multilingualism Across Educational Contexts. Edited by Corinne A. Seals and Vincent Ieni Olsen-Reeder. Wellington, Victoria University Press, 2019. 389 pp. ISBN 9781776562916150 Antonina A. Kharkovskaya Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Perfectionist Types in the English as a Foreign Language Teaching Profession in Russia <p>This study examines perfectionism in the English language teaching profession in Russia. The aims are threefold: 1) to use latent profile analysis (LPA) to classify English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers into different types of perfectionists; 2) to compare different types of perfectionists using depression-anxiety-stress indicators (DASS); 3) to study the link between perfectionism and the perception of one’s professional teaching activity. We used convenience sampling by collecting data from 117 English teachers (5% males, 95% females; age range 20-64; M= 39; SD=12) with the Short Almost Perfect Scale (SAPS) and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-21 (DASS-21). LPA was conducted to determine the optimal number of types of individuals based on their SAPS profile. Three distinct classes of perfectionists were found (adaptive, maladaptive, non-perfectionists). 27% of the respondents fell into the category of maladaptive perfectionists with high scores on both the Standards and Discrepancy subscales. Teachers with higher Standards tend to be more aware of their perfectionism. Teachers who are less satisfied with their English proficiency tend to be more stressed at work. However, the results of the study did not indicate significant differences between the perfectionist types on anxiety, depression, and stress. The findings suggest the need to develop these scales further for measuring perfectionism in the teaching profession and in EFL teaching particularly.</p> Kenneth Wang, Tatiana M. Permyakova, Marina S. Sheveleva Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Referential Coherence of Academic Texts: A Corpus-Based Analysis of L2 Research Papers in Management <p>This paper focuses on referential coherence, which is seen as a crucial attribute of effective academic writing. Findings are reported from a corpus study of Russian students’ research proposals. The learners’ use of anaphoric expressions is compared with a reference corpus, which comprises research articles published in peer-reviewed journals. It was hypothesised that learners use anaphora less frequently than professional writers and face some difficulties when using anaphoric expressions. The results of the analysis partly confirmed the hypothesis and allowed the identification of particular problems connected with the students’ use of anaphoric expressions, which were then classified into several groups. Examples of exercises aimed at dealing with the identified problems are also provided. It is hoped that the reported findings, as well as the author’s suggested reasons for the problems and possible ways of dealing with them, will be useful for EAP practitioners, researchers, and students writing their research papers in English.</p> Elizaveta A. Smirnova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Pragmeme of Political Humour in Selected Nigerian Political Cartoons <p>Political humour is a recurring element in print media and other genres, touching various areas of Nigerian political discourse. A number of research studies have investigated political humour in contemporary Nigerian political discourse. The political humour deployed in responding to some prominent political events in 2016, however, is relatively unexplored. This current endeavour, therefore, attempts to examine the pragmeme of humour in selected 2016 political events that are remediated in political cartoons. These include political matters such as Nigeria’s 56th Independence Anniversary, the crusade against corruption, which Muhammadu Buhari commenced when he became the President of Nigeria, and the alleged 2016 budget padding scandal that rocked the House of Representatives. The frameworks for the study comprise Flamson and Barrett’s Encryption Theory of Humour and Mey’s Pragmeme Theory. The six political cartoons that were subjected to discourse interpretations were culled from Aprokotoons Media, Nigeria’s foremost internet-based cartoon journal with a large collection of relevant cartoon resources for print and electronic media. The results revealed that audiences who were well informed on these political activities were able to decrypt the cartoons because they shared the same key political knowledge as the cartoonist. Thus, honest laughter is produced, but on the other hand, the cartoons’ essential features are subordinated to the pragmeme of humour of idle campaign promises and Nigeria’s hopeless condition at 56; self-centred leadership, lawmakers who are lawbreakers, and that the worst form of corruption is selective justice. Hence, these findings enhance the public perception of the country’s political actors, and underscore the need for rethinking the sensibility of political acts, promises, and decisions.</p> Tolulope Oluremi Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Integrating Information and Communication Technologies in English for Specific Purposes Nooruddin, Musarat Yasmin Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Does Autonomy Really Matter in Language Learning? <p>The main aim of this study was to unravel the possible relationship between individuals’ level of autonomy as EFL learners and academic success in terms of language learning at the tertiary level. Additionally, this quantitative study focused on exploring EFL learners’ level of autonomy and also the relationship between learner autonomy and some personal factors, including gender, age, English level, and the length of English education. In order to assess the participants’ levels of autonomy, a questionnaire consisting of 66 items was administered to 267 university students, who were Turkish-speakers of English as a foreign language. The findings showed that more than half of the learners (65.2%) had a high autonomy level with a mean autonomy score of 461.37 out of 660. As for the personal variables, only gender was found to be a significant factor in regards to learners’ autonomy, in this case, in favour of females. Correlation analysis revealed a positive correlation between learner autonomy level and the academic success of language learners. In other words, the academic success of language learners increased with their autonomy and vice versa. In accordance with the literature, the present study revealed that learner autonomy could be considered one of the factors that affects the success of language learners. Based on the findings, it might be suggested that learner autonomy and possible ways to promote it in and out of class should be given more importance. Further empirical research was suggested in order to comprehend unexplored aspects of learner autonomy in language learning.</p> Gülnihal Şakrak-Ekin, Cem Balçıkanlı Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Plasticity of Students’ Language Learning Beliefs: The Interplay of Gender, Grade and Educational Level <p>Understanding learners’ epistemological beliefs as one of the core segments underlying one’s learning experience is of cardinal importance both from the point of conveying as well as acquiring new knowledge. In English language teaching studying language learning beliefs has aroused a widespread research interest, with its genesis found in the seminal paper by Horwitz (1987), whose instrument (BALLI) was employed to collect the data in the present paper. In the under-researched context of Bosnia and Herzegovina the current study explores language learning beliefs of 233 elementary school and university students, taking into account the main and interaction effect of three factors: gender, grade and educational level. Through ANOVA and MANOVA statistical analyses, the results revealed an insignificant main effect of gender and grade on the BALLI while the latter significantly affected one of the subscales. Conversely, educational level demonstrated a significant main effect on both the BALLI and one subscale. Most importantly, the study showed interesting interplay of the three factors on the shaping of learners’ stances. These findings bring a significant realization of the complexity of the beliefs as well as their ever-changing nature with relevant pedagogical implications for the field of second language acquisition.</p> Vildana Dubravac, Esma Latić Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Skills and Competencies in Higher Education and Beyond <p>The editorial focuses on the employability skills and the ways they are reflected in the research field of higher education. The topics related to competencies, abilities, attributes and skills are crucially important as they substantially determine the chances of successful employability for university graduates. The multiple approaches and frameworks covering various kinds of qualifications have been emerging since the 1980s, starting from the 21st century skills to the recent key skills required within education for sustainable development. The UN, European Union, OECD, and other international institutions regularly put forward comprehensive frameworks to address the pressing needs of the transforming economy and society for professionals and specialists ready to face the new challenges. The editorial gives a glimpse of the trends JLE is willingly ready to bring out for our readers in the coming years.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Fri, 20 Dec 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Gamification as a Field Landmark in Educational Research <p>In their editorial review, the JLE editors consider the concept of gamification, its spread in higher education research, and relevance at present. The authors analyse the current Scopus statistics to prove the prominence of the theme for researchers. The JLE scope can be further enriched via more studies on gamification in higher education and games in learning at large. The editorial may prompt the potential authors to proceed with more profound research in gamification learning techniques applicable to education.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Pragmatics of musical rhetoric in the post-2015 elections in Nigeria <p>In linguistics, most studies on rhetoric are approached from the perspective of persuasive ideologies of social actors such as community, religious, and political leaders with a concentration on their speeches and the impacts of the speeches on their followers and society at large. As a result, music as a form of persuasion and political strategy has been under-researched. This paper investigates the rhetoric embedded in politically-motivated musical renditions in the post-2015 elections in Nigeria and identifies ideologies of persuasion, pragmatic choice(s), and implications of the narratives on the Nigerian political landscape. Mey’s pragmatic acts serve as the theoretical base. Two popular and viral musical renditions in (Nigerian pidgin) English from social media were selected for the study. Analysis of the selected songs which critiqued the leadership style of President Muhammadu Buhari from two opposing angles was carried out. Both songs exhibited the Pragmemic activity of (in)direct speech acts as well as conversational and psychological acts through their rhythm and lyrics adapted from Harry Song’s popular ‘Reggae Blues’ and re-titled as ‘The (Change/Truth) Blues’. Musical political rhetoric relies on co-texts conveyed through verifiable information, (satiric) visuals, history, antecedents, and socio-political realities and sentiments as strategies of persuasion. The pragmatic acts employed include narrating, condemning, accusing and counter-accusing, blaming, justifying, (partial) veiling, threatening, hoping, and praying. The study reveals the political consciousness and conflicting perceptions of some Nigeria citizens in governance and makes a case for ‘truth awareness’ among the governed. Citizens’ active participation and better access to information about the political leadership of the day is, therefore, advocated. All these are invaluable for the reposing of trust in the government and also engender citizens’ active participation.</p> Ayodele James Akinola Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Impact of Vocabulary Knowledge on the Reading Comprehension of Saudi EFL Learners <p>Vocabulary knowledge is the building block of learning a second language and the degree of success for learning any language depends on the amount of vocabulary a learner possesses. Vocabulary knowledge contributes to mastering language skills (reading, listening, writing, and speaking). Therefore, the present study aims at determining the role of vocabulary size in reading comprehension among Saudi EFL learners. The participants of this study included 64 male students who studied at the first level in the academic year 2018/2019 at King Khalid University. Both the Vocabulary Size Test developed by (Schmitt et al.) and reading comprehension test taken from the TOEFL preparation manual were used to collect the necessary data for the study. The results of the study revealed that the overall vocabulary size of Saudi EFL learners was 2025 word families. This amount helps students to comprehend 90% of written texts as pointed out by many researchers in this field. The results also showed a significant relationship between vocabulary size and reading comprehension. Vocabulary knowledge is an important predictor for comprehending written texts. The study provides some implications for educational stakeholders such as putting more emphasis on teaching vocabulary and using different teaching strategies that assist in the acquisition of vocabulary in general and academic vocabulary in particular. </p> <p><em>Keywords:</em> vocabulary knowledge; vocabulary depth; vocabulary breadth; reading comprehension; Saudi EFL learners.</p> Fadi Al-Khasawneh Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of an EFL and L2 Russian Teletandem Class: Student Perceptions of Oral Proficiency Gains <p>In response to the growing demand for highly proficient foreign language (L2) speakers in professional work settings, scholars and educators have increasingly turned their attention to methods for developing greater fluency in their learners who aspire to such jobs. Engaging in persuasive writing and argumentation has been shown to promote both written and oral proficiency among advanced L2 learners (Brown, 2009). This study focuses on the application of the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) proficiency guidelines and standards to the design of teletandem courses in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and Russian as a Foreign Language developed to promote Advanced and Superior-level language gains. ACTFL Can-Do statements were used to evaluate learners’ self-reported language gains as a result of participating in the course. The results indicated that such an approach can indeed yield significant perceived gains, especially for spoken language, for all the participants regardless of their target language and home institution.</p> Jennifer Bown, Laura Catharine Smith, Ekaterina V. Talalakina Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Literacy: From the Perspective of Text and Discourse Theory <p>Literacy is a critically important and contemporary issue for educators, scientists, and politicians. Efforts to overcome the challenges associated with illiteracy, and the subsequent development of literate societies, are closely related to those of poverty reduction and sustainable human development. In this paper, the authors examine literacy from the lens of text and discourse theorists who focus on the higher-order comprehension processes involved in literacy. Discourse processing models make the assumption that comprehension emerges from the construction of a mental model of the text, which relies on the reader generating inferences to connect ideas within the text and to what the reader already knows. The article provides a broad overview of the theoretical models that drive research on text comprehension and production, as well as how this research shapes literacy instruction and effective interventions. The authors focus on two interventions with proven success in improving deep comprehension and writing, iSTART and the Writing Pal. Increasing literacy across the world call for a greater focus on theory driven strategy interventions to be integrated within classrooms and community at large.</p> Danielle S. McNamara, Rod Roscoe, Laura Allen, Renu Balyan, Kathryn S. McCarthy Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Leadership Potential of Professional Teacher Associations in Russia: Formation of Middle Leaders <p>This research study is aimed at investigating distributed leadership practices in the Russian school system, of which professional teacher associations (PTA) constitute a distinct feature. In particular, we set out to investigate the PTA leadership potential, as well as the role and specific personal characteristics of middle leaders in the Russian school education system. These associations are formed by the school administration on the basis of subject areas, bringing together teachers of maths, history, etc. Teachers join PTAs on a voluntarily basis. The key function of such organisations consists in the implementation of innovative educational approaches and techniques. In order to analyse their leadership potential, we carried out a sociological survey among the employees of high-profile secondary schools (gymnasiums and lyceums) situated in the major Russian city of Ekaterinburg. The research methodology comprised structured interviews with 110 respondents, along with in-depth interviews with 2 school directors, 4 school deputy directors and 6 heads of professional teacher associations. Our results show that the fundamentals and principles of distributed leadership are actively implemented in Ekaterinburg schools. The school administrations encourage the creation of professional teacher associations grouped around subject areas, delegating to these structural units the functions of improving the quality of teaching the respective subjects and disseminating educational innovations, at the same time as fulfilling the requirements of the state and regional education authorities. Such associations are headed by middle leaders, who are nominated by their colleagues and whose candidacy is approved by school seniors, taking into account their professional achievements, experience of leading pedagogical innovations and the presence of the right personal qualities necessary for productive collaborative work. These people perform the role of mediators, operating at the interface between various levels within the school. Although viewed as a school’s personnel reserve for the positions of principals and head teachers, our respondents consider themselves to be ‘more teachers’ or ‘innovators in education’ than administrators. The development of the leadership qualities of such professionals in the Russian school system is shown to be hindered by a ‘glass ceiling’ – a certain limit in their career growth. This discouraging factor results in some middle school leaders searching for professional self-realization opportunities outside the school system, in the spheres of business, science or culture that are believed to provide more opportunities for self-advancement.</p> Anatoly V. Merenkov, Natalya L. Antonova, Natalia G. Popova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Impact of Cooperative Learning on Developing Speaking Ability and Motivation Toward Learning English <p>This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cooperative learning in English language classrooms to enhance Iranian students’ speaking skills and motivations. A pre-test–post-test control group design was employed to compare the impact of the cooperative learning approach with that of traditional whole-class instruction on speaking skills and six aspects of learning motivation: intrinsic motivation, integrated regulation, identified regulation, introjected regulation, external regulation, and amotivation. The data of the current study were gathered at multiple points of time before and after the end of the experiment to determine the effectiveness of cooperative learning on the sample’s speaking skills and motivations. In practical terms, the sample’s speaking skills were first examined through an English oral test prior to and after some cooperative learning instructional activities were provided. Next, a seven-point Likert scale-questionnaire was administered to the sample before and at the end of the course to check students’ motivation towards the use of cooperative learning in English classes. The data were analyzed using basic and inferential statistical methods including mean scores, standard deviations, independent and paired sample t-tests, one-way ANCOVA, and effect size. The findings showed remarkable development in the students’ speaking skills after the introduction of cooperative learning techniques. Moreover, the findings suggested significant differences in favor of cooperative learning for improving intrinsic motivation, but no differences were found on other aspects of motivation. In light of the findings, the researchers recommend that teachers could benefit from applying CL in English classes, which may in turn develop students’ speaking skills and motivation.</p> Ehsan Namaziandost, Vida Shatalebi, Mehdi Nasri Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Medium of Instruction Policy in Nepal: Towards Critical Engagement on the Ideological and Pedagogical Debate <p>Although there were attempts to develop multilingual and multicultural education in Nepal, changes have remained more discursive than pragmatic at the working level. Problems discussed have remained unsolved. The issues of protection and promotion of the historically residing linguistic diversity have been addressed through the current constitution (Constitution of Nepal-2015) which provides an appropriate legal framework for substantive legal protection for the national indigenous languages as MOIs. However, the successful implementation of this provision is further complicated due to the global political economy, interdependence, and the ‘sandwiched’ geopolitical status of Nepal. It has been noted that education policymaking is highly centralised and implementation is top-down (Edwards, 2011) in many countries such as Nepal, the current trend of English-medium instruction supported by parents, communities, and the private sector from the bottom up will further weaken the attempts for mother tongue MOI in Nepalese schools. Moreover, the social capitalisation of English from the bottom up will have grave consequences for language policymaking in education, which are obviously dismal but essential nonetheless. Despite the research findings revealing that multilingual education offers the best possibilities for preparing the coming generation to participate in constructing more equitable and democratic societies in the globalised world, the translation of such findings into real-life practice is telescopic. This article emphasises the need for the critical engagement of scholars, educators, investors, and policymakers in order to develop contextually realistic, sustainable, and efficient MOI policymaking that justifies the use of mother tongues, national language, and the global language in an integrated framework sufficient for future generations to compete both locally and globally.</p> Prem Prasad Poudel Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Teaching Language and Teaching Literature in Virtual Environment by Maria Luisa Carrio-Pastor (eds)., Springer Verlag, Singapore, 2019. XXI+293 pp. ISBN 978-981-13-1358-5 (eBook) Amare Tesfie Birhan Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Native and Non-Native EFL Teachers Dichotomy: Terminological, Competitiveness and Employment Discrimination <p>The application of ‘native’ and ‘non-native’ labels to EFL professionals has been influenced by the argument over their discriminatory nature. L1 proponents claim that natives are innate with linguistic competence while non-natives are referred to as second-best. A review of studies investigating the coherence of these terms supported the validity of this phenomenon. However, competing theories emphasise the importance and impact of discriminatory terminology not addressed by natives This paper looks at this debate in some detail and aims to balance the need for accurate descriptive labelling against the damaging effects of pejorative categories. It also discusses teaching and linguistic competence in light of both “native” and “non-native” categories. The discourse focuses on the advantages and disadvantages attributed to the native versus non-native EFL teacher and employment discrimination issues faced by non-native EFL teachers in institutions, job advertisements, and in the administration of institutions themselves today. It was concluded that a more refined approach to describing different types of EFL professionals is required, which does not negatively disadvantage either L1 or L2 teachers of English. </p> Mersad Dervić, Senad Bećirović Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Mon, 30 Sep 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Scoping Reviews: What is in a Name? <p>The editorial dwells upon scoping or otherwise called mapping reviews that have recently come to the fore. Starting to appear from the early 2000s, scoping reviews initially came out in medicine and biosciences. The present-day unprecedented boost in the scoping review quantity is spurred by a general thrust for structured analysis and synthesis of scientific information across fields and disciplines. The authors aim to overview the methodology of scoping reviews with regard to their prospects for social sciences and humanities.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Influence of the Teaching Style of Communication on the Motivation of Students to Learn Foreign Languages <p>Nowadays, when the role of knowing foreign languages is extremely high and the demand for specialists who are proficient in a language is continuing to increase, we face the problem of a lack of desire to learn foreign languages among non-linguistic majors. We supposed that the type of teacher-student interaction style (authoritarian, democratic, and liberal) could influence students’ motivation type (internal, external positive, external negative, or amotivation) and this was the aim of the study. We surveyed 230 second-year students of the intramural form of study seeking a baccalaureate degree from Moscow State University of Food Production. Among the respondents there were 143 girls and 87 boys aged 18-20, citizens of the Russian Federation. The experiment was divided into three stages and it took three semesters to complete the study. The aim of the first stage was to investigate students’ preferences related to teacher-student interaction style, and the prevailing type of learning motivation to study and to learn foreign languages. The second stage of the study was aimed to investigate how teacher-student interaction style influences the nature and type of students' motivation to learn. In the last stage of the study, the output testing of student performance was implemented and all the results from the previous stages were compared and analyzed. The results of the experiment clearly demonstrated that both authoritarian and democratic teacher-student interaction styles could have a positive influence on students’ educational behaviour and academic performances while the implementation of the liberal teacher-student interaction style led to amotivation. At the same time, the democratic style, contrary to the authors' hypothesis, predominantly provoked external motivation, while an authoritarian style significantly activated internal motivation.</p> Marina Ivanova, Natalia Shlenskaya, Natalia Mekeko, Tatiana Kashkarova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Science Culture, Language, and Education in America: Literacy, Conflict, and Successful Outreach by Emily Schoering. New York, Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 145 pp. ISBN 1349958131 Einas Albadawi Tarboush Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 A Cognitive Approach to the Instruction of Phrasal Verbs: Rudzka-Ostyn’s Model <p>English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners find some phrasal verbs problematic because of their idiomatic and polysemous nature. They are frequently used in spoken English and textbooks suggest an arbitrary way in teaching them. Cognitive linguists proposed that the particle plays a major role in determining the meaning of such phrasal verbs. This study investigated the effectiveness of a cognitive approach (i.e., Rudzka-Ostyn’s Model) in teaching taught and new phrasal verbs including metaphorical ones. Using a list of frequent phrasal verbs, a quasi-experimental design was used in which an experimental group was required to create mind maps of the common meanings of each particle with example phrasal verbs. The control group, on the other hand, was asked to memorize the frequent senses of the most frequent phrasal verbs along with their translations. The experimental group did not outperform the control group on the post-test. This was attributed to a number of problems such as the fact that some senses given by some particles are not outlined in Rudzka-Ostyn’s Model. Further, the analytical procedure followed by students to cognitively understand phrasal verbs should be made explicit and address the interaction between the verb and the particle. Additionally, following a cognitive approach, instructors should focus more on the particles up and out since they have many senses and contribute a lot to phrasal-verb formation.</p> Ghuzayyil Mohammed Al-Otaibi Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Tense and Aspect in the Academic Writing of Arab L2 Learners of English: A Corpus-Based Approach <div class="item abstract"> <p>This study aimed at explicating the use of tense and aspect in the academic writing of Arab L2 learners of English. The scope was restricted to two absolute tenses (simple present and simple past), perfective and imperfective aspects, and verb-form errors arising from the deletion or addition of the third person singular-s besides the omission of copula and auxiliary verbs. The study was conducted on the basis of a comparative, quantitative analysis of the target forms between a learner corpus and a similar-sized native one. In pursuing and achieving the stated objectives, it also concentrated on the types and sources of the tense, aspect and verb form errors in learners’ performance. In addition to the significant disparity between the two corpora in terms of the frequency count and percentage of most of the target forms, the findings confirmed learners’ tendency to use more verbs than native speakers. Results also showed that learners’ use of the preterit (simple past), and perfective and imperfective aspects were largely constrained by their L1 grammar and semantic interpretation of verbs (independent of the target language norm). Moreover, the findings revealed some common inconsistent erroneous forms attributed to the omission or addition of the third person singular-s and the omission of copula and auxiliary verbs. Several main factors were identified as potentially responsible for learners’ errors, that is, inconsistency inherent in L2 rules, learners’ limited exposure to (authentic) L2, overgeneralization, redundancy reduction, and language transfer. The findings suggest the need to introduce appropriate pedagogical methods to best present the target language rules.</p> </div> Mousa A. Btoosh Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Internationalization and English as a Medium of Instruction in Mongolian Higher Education: A New Concept <div class="item abstract"> <p>The impact of globalization leaves no choice to universities but to go toward internationalization in order to survive in the growing competition in higher education. Following the global trend of internationalization, Mongolian universities plan to increase courses and programs in English in order to improve their competitiveness and ultimately to become internationally visible, at least in Asia. Based on two types of data, documents and an online survey, this study discusses the current process of internationalization at Mongolian universities and explores how faculty members perceive the rationales of implementing English as a Medium of Instruction (EMI). The findings revealed that the Mongolian government is the key player in internationalization through policies, taking initiatives, and encouraging national universities. The faculty members of the two leading private universities in Mongolia perceived that the introduction of EMI at their universities intends to improve their graduates’ English language skills to operate globally and as well as to promote their university’s international profile.</p> </div> Sainbayar Gundsambuu Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Nihongo Speech Trainer: A Pronunciation Training System for Japanese Sounds <p>This article will present the methodology, as well as the results, of a pilot study of the ‘Nihongo Speech Trainer’ aimed at helping Thai learners improve their ability to identify Japanese contrasts. The pilot study was performed on 15 participants. The tool focuses on specific contrasts that are problematic for Thai learners such as Japanese fricatives and affricates. Perceptual training uses a high-variability phonetic training method (hereafter referred to as “HVPT perceptual training”). Each training session included 90 minimal pairs in which the target contrasts were embedded in initial, medial and final positions. The training stimuli were produced by seven Japanese native speakers. The results of the pilot study showed that the use of the Nihongo Speech Trainer can lead to better perception of the trained Japanese sounds. The results of a questionnaire among the participants also showed that the system helped to improve their perception and production ability. However, despite these positive results with the use of the Nihongo Speech Trainer, there is room for improvement, which may lead to better training results.</p> Tanporn Trakantalerngsak Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Positive Psychology and Mastery of the L2 Academic Self <div class="item abstract"> <p>In order to determine how best to prepare students for university and to participate meaningfully in the activities of their intended academic discourse community (ADC), the influential model proposed by Anne Beaufort in 2007 suggests that this can only occur once a learner has mastered the domains of knowledge pertaining to the target ADC, including those of subject matter, genre, rhetorical techniques and the writing process. However, this article will argue that mastery of a domain and entry into an ADC involves more than this; both of these things can occur only once a student has been able to ‘master’ him/herself. In order to address the question of the nature of ‘self-mastery’ and how to guide students towards achieving it, this article draws upon theories from the emerging field of positive psychology, showing how notions such as self-efficacy, mindfulness and flow can be interwoven with concepts more commonly associated with English for Academic Purposes or ‘EAP’ (e.g. learner autonomy, motivation and noticing) to provide insights into how mastery of the second/additional language learning (L2) academic self can be facilitated. The application of these proposed strategies in the classroom is intended to give students the tools to not only to enter their chosen ADC but also to leave their mark on it.</p> </div> Aleks Palanac Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Teaching Business English with TED Talks: Putting Ideas into Practice <p> is used in teaching EFL to enhance exposure to English, to promote authentic vocabulary and to develop multiple foreign language skills. For university students studying business as their major and English for professional communication as a part of their university curriculum, TED talks provide a cutting-edge business context, which aims to increase the learners’ English language proficiency, develop the learners’ professional competencies and expand their outlook by acquainting them with business practices from around the world. Through authentic models of effective communication, students build fluency to achieve academic and personal success. Business English with TED talks, an EFL resource book, is the result of the author’s approach to creating educational materials based on authentic and up to date video content. Using the example of ‘Business English with TED talks’, this paper describes criteria for selecting TED talks for different groups of students, the structure of a TED talk lesson and provides teachers with other resources for supplementing TED talk lessons.</p> Olga Stognieva Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Does Communicative Language Teaching Help Develop Students’ Competence in Thinking Critically? <div class="item abstract"> <p>Critical thinking is one of the non-subject related learning goals which students are expected to develop in British education. Undergraduate students are offered to study language through the Institution-Wide Language Programme (IWLP) in the UK and most language teachers use Communicative Language Teaching (CLT). Paying attention to these two facts, this study investigates if CLT helps develop students’ critical thinking. Using Hofstede et al.’s educational culture as a framework, the underlying pedagogies for both CLT and critical thinking were identified and the similarities and differences are compared. It was concluded that CLT helps to develop students’ critical thinking as it shares with critical thinking pedagogies and elements of an educational culture. However, the pedagogy of independence was not shared. It is suggested that language teachers should give students the opportunity to think for themselves during class in order to encourage students’ independence using CLT.</p> </div> Junko Winch Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 30 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0300 English as a Lingua Franca in a Multilingual India <p>In this opinion article, we highlight that the cultural policy of language in India has resulted in an impasse in regard to determining and deciding upon a national language policy. We then summarize how English use across India has been elevated to the status of a lingua franca (amidst the language policy impasse), making it an indispensable part of the system and the economy. In that context, this opinion article presents the various tenets of the language policy issue with recommendations for educators in India on how to utilize best practices from literacy, culture, and language education (LCLE) literature to improve and maintain the quality of education whilst operating within the confines of the language policy impasse.</p> Ishwarya N. Iyer, Sridhar Ramachandran Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Younger, the Better? A Multi-Factorial Approach to Understanding Age Effects on EFL Phonological Attainment <p>Second language (L2) phonological acquisition is constrained by a complex interplay of extra-linguistic factors, among which the age factor is frequently investigated. This study adopted a multi-factorial approach to examine the effects of the age of learning English (AoLE), along with ten other extra-linguistic factors, on the ultimate English phonological attainment of 318 university students in Chinese context for English as a foreign language (EFL) as a whole and across three cohorts: first-year non-English majors, first-year English majors, and third-year English majors. The participants were administered background questionnaires and receptive and productive EFL phonology tests. The results of regression analyses indicated that the AoLE was not a predictor for the whole sample, while English pronunciation self-concept (EPSC) turned out to be the most predictive. Predictors for each cohort varied in number and content. Whichever cohort the participants came from, EPSC remained a constant and potent predictor, whereas the AoLE could merely predict the phonological attainment of first-year non-English majors, accounting for 4% of its variance. The findings of the study contribute to the long-standing debate over the viability of the critical period hypothesis, provide methodological implications for age-related L2 phonology research, and inform early EFL educational decisions.</p> Zhengwei Pei, Kerong Qin Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Pictorial Framing in Moral Politics: A Corpus-Based Experimental Study. Abdel-Raheem A., New York, NY & London, UK: Routledge, 2019. 209 pp., including 50 b/w figures and an index. ISBN 978-1-1-138-35176-9 (hbk), 978-0-429-43508-9 (ebk) Charles Forceville Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The Top 100 Cited Discourse Studies: An Update <p>The editorial review of the top 100 most cited articles on discourse in the subject area of ‘linguistics and language’ aims to define the dominating trends and find out the prevailing article structures for JLE authors to follow as the best practice-based patterns and guidelines. The top 100 quoted articles were singled out from Scopus database, filtered through subject areas (social sciences; arts and humanities), language (English), years (2015-2019), document type (article) and keywords (discourse; discourse analysis; critical discourse analysis; semantics). The research finds out that educational discourses and news media coverage discourses are the most popular themes with 23 publications each; other prevailing topics cover media, policy-related, ecology discourses, metaphors, racism and religion in discourses. As the top 100 cited articles include mainly original articles (both theoretical and empirical), the study focused on the article structure, calling JLE authors’ attention to the journal editors’ stance on article formats.</p> Lilia Raitskaya, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) 2019 National Research University Higher School of Economics Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Decoding Encoded Yorùbá Nomenclature: An Exercise of Linguistic Competence and Performance <p>The study investigated word formation experience in Yorùbá names. At the deployment of ellipsis, as the instrument of analysis, one observed the effectiveness of terminologies of competence and performance, being operational in the clipping of statements to nominal lexemes, illustrated with names of ten towns in South West Nigeria. The study exhibited flexibility in the development of Yorùbá, which depended largely on users’ needs. Historical facts of business, religion, hunting, war and conquest supported the formations, without seemingly consistent linguistic principles. Eliminations of linguistic components occurred to the statements and sometimes with twists in pronunciations, displaying new lexemes and meanings. Although, individuals might attempt to regulate ways that people employ language to formulate words, the study suggested that language communicators should be allowed to deploy language as pleased. As language analyses seem descriptive, utilizing language as delighted might yield novel items to enhance language development in unique forms. &nbsp;</p> Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 The The Arabic Aspectual Marker Qad from the Perspective of the Two-Component Theory of Aspect <p>The study examined the Arabic aspectual particle qad within the framework of Smith’s Two-Component Theory of Aspect, which views aspectual meaning as a combination of covert situation types and overt viewpoint markers. The analysis, which was conducted on Modern Standard Arabic, revealed that the Arabic aspectual marker qad has a tendency to be used perfectively, but it also has imperfective uses. However, as far as situation types are concerned, the analysis found some variation when it comes to the use of imperfective and perfective qad. The findings were also correlated to different constructions in which qad typically occurs.</p> Dania Adel Salamah Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Examining Undergraduate Students’ and In-Service Graduates’ Perceptions of Their Professionally Oriented Foreign Language Needs <p>Increasing workplace demands on foreign languages skills in professional settings call for a number of considerable changes in the university learning context regarding foreign language teaching. The present study aimed to assess the language needs within and across employed university graduates, first, third, and fourth-year students of non-language majors to further inform such changes. All four language skills, the context of both current foreign language education programs and the use of a foreign language at the workplace were considered. Questionnaires including Likert scale, multiple choice, and open-ended items were distributed among 110 students and 35 currently employed graduates. Descriptive statistics and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey HSD and Holm-Bonferroni tests were used to analyze the data. The results indicated several areas of agreement among the participants: A clear need for all four language skills to be developed as high as C2 level and the consistent need to improve speaking. However, several noticeable discrepancies between the perceptions of the target groups regarding the context of workplace language use, such as how often, where, and with whom they expect to communicate, and need for professionally oriented foreign language were revealed. Overall, students may need to be more informed about the challenges regarding the workplace context for language use. </p> Irina Yakusheva, Olga Marina, Oksana Demchenkova Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Meaningful Learning and Its Implications for Language Education in Vietnam <p>This paper attempts to make an argument for meaningful learning as an essential factor in the teaching of English as a foreign language. Meaningful learning rests its theories against cognitive processing. While contemporary literature shows knowledge of language in general is essential for second language use, this research is mainly concerned with ways of improving students’ language use. It has proved that meaningful learning facilitates the retention of knowledge as it makes learners organize their knowledge logically. In the classroom, the teacher should offer activities that relate the new input to learners’ existing knowledge, for which cognitive engagement is required. In English language teaching, it is important for teachers to know that learner-centeredness should be applied because they are the ones who process knowledge. This paper begins with an overview of different approaches of foreign language teaching, then presents theories in which meaningful learning is grounded and rooted. The discussion of how one’s knowledge of a first language is essential for foreign language learning is given prior to giving implications of meaningful learning in the Vietnamese context.</p> Bui Phu Hung Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 Fairness and Ethics in Multiple Choice (MC) Scoring: An Empirical Study <p>One among the main concerns of language testers in the design and implementation of tests is selecting the method of scoring for the tool used to perform the evaluation. This attribute indirectly reveals the tester’s ethical beliefs and personal stance on testing pedagogy. This is another study challenging the typical 1-0 method of scoring in Multiple Choice Tests (MCT) and implements, for experimental purposes, a simple polychotomous partial-credit scoring system on official tests administered for the National Foreign Language Exam System in Greece (NFLES-Gr). The study comes in support of earlier findings on the subject by the same authors in analogous smaller-scale studies. The MCT items chosen were completed by a total of 1,922 subjects in different levels of the NFLES-Gr test for Italian as an L2 in Greece. Results clearly indicate that the tested scoring procedure provides refined insights into students’ interlanguage levels, enhances sensitivity in scoring procedures, and may provide significant differences for testees found to be close to the pass/non-pass borderline without jeopardizing test reliability. </p> George S. Ypsilandis, Anna Mouti Copyright (c) Tue, 12 Mar 2019 00:00:00 +0300 An Examination of Relative Clauses in Argumentative Essays Written by EFL Learners <p>Syntactic complexity has received a great deal of attention in the literature on second language writing. Relative clauses, which function as a kind of noun phrase post-modifier, are among those structures that are believed to contribute to the complexity of academic prose. These grammatical structures can pose difficulties for EFL writers even at higher levels of proficiency, and it is therefore important to determine the frequency and accuracy with which relative clauses are used by L2 learners since understanding learners’ strengths and weaknesses in using these structures can inform teachers on ways to improve the process of their instruction in the writing classroom. This paper reports on a corpus-based comparison of relative clauses in a number of argumentative essays written by native and non-native speakers of English. To this end, 30 argumentative essays were randomly selected from the Persian sub-corpus of the ICLE and the essays were analyzed with respect to the relative clauses found in them. The results were then compared to a comparable corpus of essays by native speakers. Different dimensions regarding the structure of relative clauses were investigated. The type of relative clause (restrictive/non-restrictive), the relativizer (adverbial/pronoun), the gap (subject/non-subject), and head nouns (both animate and non-animate) in our two sets of data were manually identified and coded. The findings revealed that the non-native writers tended to use a greater number of relative clauses compared to their native-speaker counterparts.</p> Hesamoddin Shahriari, Farzaneh Shadloo, Ahmad Ansarifar Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Effects of Mastery Learning Instruction on Engineering Students’ Writing Skills Development and Motivation <p>This study was aimed to investigate the effects of mastery learning instruction on engineering students’ academic writing skills and motivation in an EFL context. The participants were software engineering and computer science first-year students, and they were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Observation, a questionnaire, and pre- and post-tests were employed as data gathering instruments. The research was designed through a time series quasi-experimental research design. The data were analysed through repeated measure ANOVA, independent t-tests, as well as descriptive statistics. The findings indicated that there was a statistical difference between the experimental and the control groups. Hence, students who participated in mastery learning instruction improved their writing skills and achieved better scores in writing skills assessment. Particularly, learners who learned through mastery learning instruction were able to develop paragraphs and essays with clear topic sentences and thesis statements. They also developed paragraphs with proper punctuation and minimized various mechanical errors that were observed during the pre-test. Furthermore, the students who engaged in mastery learning instruction had better levels of motivation. Thus, individualized instruction and continuous feedback helped them improve their engagement in writing activities. Hence, this study calls for more attention to self-paced instruction, regular feedback, assessment, and continuous support in writing classrooms.</p> Amare Tesfie Birhan Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Role Playing in Storytelling Classes and Its Impact on Iranian Young EFL Learners’ Narrative Writing <p>The present study aimed to investigate the effect of role playing in storytelling classes on Iranian young EFL learners’ narrative writing. Forty-seven pre-intermediate young EFL learners who were within the age range of 9 and 16 participated in this study. They were members of four intact classes, which consisted of two classes of boys and two classes of girls. One class of boys and one class of girls were randomly assigned to the experimental groups and the other two to control groups. The researchers used the role-playing technique for storytelling classes in the experimental groups and only reading stories aloud for storytelling classes in the control groups. After the treatment, the Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) was run to compare the four groups’ improvement on narrative writing. The results signified that the use of role playing in the storytelling classes had a significant impact on the narrative writing of Iranian young EFL learners as compared to the reading stories aloud technique. Furthermore, the findings showed that using role playing in storytelling classes enhanced learners’ understanding of the narrative writing style and patterns of the target language.</p> Mojgan Rashtchi, Mosayeb Moradzadehb Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Functional and Linguistic Characteristics of Donald Trump’s Victory and Inaugural Speeches <p>The current research is devoted to the comparative and contrastive analysis of Donald Trump’s victory and inaugural speeches. Its objective is to identify their similarities and differences from the functional and linguistic points of view. The research consists of several stages. First, the two genres of discourse in question are defined. Then, an overview of their functions is provided. Next, the linguistic means of performing them are analyzed. The results of the research indicate that, due to their main goals, the genres in question express certain functions, which can be verbally expressed in various ways: in Trump’s victory speech the inspirative function comes to the fore, while in his inaugural address the integrative and the performative functions dominate the other ones. Furthermore, in each case linguistic peculiarities correlate with the functions: in the victory speech the focus is on the ‘greatness’ of everything and everyone, whereas in the inaugural speech words connected with patriotism prevail, which is expressed mostly by means of personal pronouns. The results of the current research may function as a basis for further analysis of the genre of the victory speech, as it has not received enough scholarly attention yet, and of the peculiarities of Donald Trump’s political discourse.</p> Yulia Chanturidze Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Learner Autonomy through Role Plays in English Language Teaching <p>Nowadays, learner autonomy is considered to be a multidimensional and diversified concept. A number of scientists have found support for the importance of learner autonomy but there is little empirical research on using different strategies for promoting and evaluating students’ autonomy. Accordingly, in order to become better language learners, students should plan, implement, and evaluate their own learning. This study aims at fostering and evaluating students’ autonomy by scaffolding their speaking practices through role plays in an English for Special Purposes (ESP) course. The research suggests that role-play strategies should help students develop their autonomy in acquiring ESP speaking skills. The study argues that developing autonomy is an efficient way to improve students’ performance in ESP speaking skills as it provides them with relevant scaffolding. This article provides theoretical grounding for autonomy. The entry-level and post-study speaking scores (IELTS test) are compared across experimental and control groups. A class-based training course of ESP speaking was offered in an institutional setting to 38 (15 male, 23 female) second-year students at a national research university in Russia. A special questionnaire was developed to assess learner autonomy in ESP speaking, which proved that role play promoted learner autonomy and encouraged students to master ESP speaking skills. The results of the study indicate that students who were developing their speaking skills via role play performed significantly better than their peers in the control group. The level of their English language competence improved. The role plays in the ESP speaking course proved to be a viable and productive teaching strategy for fostering autonomy among students.</p> Tatiana Baranovskaya, Valentina Shaforostova Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Innovations in Integrating Language Assistants: Inter-Collaborative Learning <p>A language assistant (LA) program was introduced into a university-level Japanese program. The LAs in this program consisted of Japanese study abroad students, that is English as a second language students, coming to study from Japanese universities for either one semester or one academic year, as well as American learners returning from a one-year academic study abroad program in Japan. In the southeastern region of the United States, the Japanese language is not yet considered a major foreign language, thus few opportunities exist for American learners to connect with native speakers of Japanese. The LA program endeavors to ease this limitation. It has been extremely beneficial for our American learners to have opportunities to communicate regularly with Japanese study abroad students in the classrooms. Furthermore, it was found tremendously valuable for Japanese study abroad students and greatly helpful for the instructors as well. This paper describes the procedures and examines the effectiveness of introducing an LA program into Japanese language classes. To analyze the program, questionnaires were distributed to LAs (N=20); five department instructors wrote comments concerning the program; and five Japanese language learners submitted reflection papers. Analyses of the qualitative data indicate that the LA program has many advantages for everyone participating.</p> Fumie Kato Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Mother Tongue of Turkish Immigrant Children in Berlin: to Be or not to Be? <p>How do bilingual Turkish children develop their mother tongue knowledge in German kindergartens and what are some of the difficulties they face? These are the questions which this paper tries to answer. For this purpose, a study with Turkish kindergarten children from Berlin, Germany was conducted. A total of 40 children were divided into two groups between 3 and 6 years old and tested twice in a year with the TEDIL Test . The test consists of pictures and measures the knowledge of Turkish nouns, verbs, adjectives, prepositions, and syntax. All of the children were tested individually by a native Turkish speaker and by the researcher. The testing was done in the kindergarten setting. The results showed that the knowledge of both age groups on different grammatical categories in Turkish was equal on the first test and there were no statistical differences. However, during the second test the group of older children showed a decrease in their knowledge of the grammatical categories in their mother tongue. This paper discusses the factors that influenced the regression in the knowledge of Turkish. This study is one of only a few on bilingual Turkish children and it presents new information about mother tongue loss among kindergarten children, discusses the reasons, and suggests that kindergartens and families should cooperate and work together in order to prevent mother tongue loss from a very early age as well as its effect on the cognitive development of bilingual children.</p> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Multimodal Pragmatics and Translation. A New Model for Source Text Analysis, Dicerto S. Palgrave Macmillan (2018). 178 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-69343-9 Victoria Malakhova Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Job Focus: Revisiting Students’ Communicative Needs and Industrial Demands <p>In an attempt to develop students’ employability skills through a job-specific, needs based English for Specific Purposes (ESP) course, this paper investigated conducting a needs analysis to understand the perceptions of the final-year technical students, alumni, and Human Resources (HR) managers for promoting placements in the campus recruitments. By employing a qualitative ethnographic approach, an open-ended questionnaire was conducted with final-year information technology students and structured and unstructured interviews with the HR managers and the alumni respectively. In this study, the communicative needs of the final-year technical students were specifically addressed to provide them with career education and placement training and raise employment opportunities in their course of study. Based on the results of the questionnaire-based survey and subsequent observations in the structured and unstructured interviews, it is widely examined that all of the HR managers reflected on the importance of English language in corporate communications. The findings of the survey also reflected that the perceptions of the alumni and the expectations of the HR managers on verbal and nonverbal skills were well received by the final-year technical students. This is a positive development on the part of students as they were found to be thoroughly aware of their workplace needs and were keen to develop language, communication, and soft skills for successfully entering into the job market. This research implies that connecting institution and industry is a significant factor in helping students obtain job offers and develop the job-specific skills that meet the requirements of the industry.</p> Jabbar Al Muzzamil Fareen Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 An Overview of Trends and Challenges in Higher Education on the Worldwide Research Agenda <p>Being a crucial part of the JLE scope, higher education is witnessing an era of supra-national, national, and institutional changes, including massification via massive online open courses (MOOC), politically launched or influenced trends like the Bologna process, increasing academic mobility spurred by globalisation and continued development of internationalised education, interculturality and multiligualism, worldwide innovations in higher education and teaching approaches (deep active learning, blended learning methods, gamification, storytelling, alignments of higher education and work, translanguaging in higher education instruction). <br>Further, the JLE editors dwell upon other relevant issues, including transformation of universities, student-teacher relationship, social equity and access to higher education, students’ engagement and commitment to learning, university excellence factors.<br>The editorial entails some guidelines for potential authors regarding priority themes JLE is going to promote within its scope.</p> Elena Tikhonova, Lilia Raitskaya Copyright (c) Mon, 31 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Pragmatics of Crisis-Motivated Humour in Computer Mediated Platforms in Nigeria <p>Humour, an established means of releasing stress and tension has attracted scholarly attention over the years. In the Nigerian discourse context, studies on Crisis-Motivated Humour (CMH) via CMC platforms are scanty. This paper investigates humour shared through the social media which reflects the socioeconomic/political challenges in Nigeria in order to identify CMH as a form of humour through which real-life experiences of other people can be understood. Ethnography of Communication and Pragmatic act theory serve as the theoretical framework. Ten anonymous humorous compositions were randomly selected from&nbsp;<em>WhatsApp</em>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em>Facebook.&nbsp;</em>CMH is a creative composition of jokes which reflects the Nigerians’ experiences, perceptions, imaginations and assumptions. They are purposefully composed by Nigerians, in order to downplay the effects of the crisis and bring temporary reliefs to the audience. These jokes elicit amusement, high-level wits and satirise the crisis situation(s). CMH are composed mainly in English with a blend of pidgin and a reflection of some Nigerianism. They are replete with verifiable, but exaggerated facts deployed through varying practs. Use of the first person singular pronoun ‘I’ and second person singular/plural ‘you’ with the use of simple present tense of verb among other grammatical elements, are a norm. All these make some of the jokes believable and also establish CMH as a unique genre of humour with an unlimited audience. CMH are often preserve-able and re-usable and thus serve as a relevant medium through which political leaders can assess the plights of the populace and access first-hand information on the ‘real’ impacts of the crisis.</p> Ayodele James Akinola Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Linguistic Politeness in Yemeni Arabic: The Use of Request Perspective <p>This article attempts to investigate the use of request perspectives in Yemeni Arabic. The sample of the current study consists of 336 undergraduate students, namely 168 male respondents and 168 female respondents. They were asked to respond in Yemeni Arabic to twelve different situations in which they carried out the speech act of request. The data were collected using a Discourse Completion Test (DCT). They were analyzed according to the models proposed by Blum-Kulka, et al. (1989), whose analytical framework classified request perspective into four types: hearer-oriented request, speaker-oriented request, inclusive, and impersonal. The results of the study revealed that native speakers of Yemeni Arabic that used the direct head acts of requests were mostly from the hearer-oriented perspective. The respondents employed a hearer-oriented perspective either in the direct strategies or conventionally indirect strategies in order to show solidarity and paying attention to others. However, the indirect head act of request used various perspectives such as hearer-oriented, speaker-oriented, inclusive, or impersonal. The respondents employed speaker-oriented perspective, inclusive or impersonal in order to be free from the imposition of others and to show that they respected the rights of others to their own autonomy and freedom of movement or choice. Furthermore, the results revealed that in general, the respondents in M-M and F-F interactions and M-F and F-M interactions employed hearer-oriented and speaker-oriented perspective more than other perspectives. In particular, the results revealed that the respondents in M-M and F-F interactions and M-F and F-M interactions had a great tendency to use hearer-oriented perspective only in direct requests.</p> Yahya Mohammed Al-Marrani Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 'Linguistic Diversity on TV': A Program for Developing Children's Multiliteracies Skills <p>In this article, we present a program designed for and carried out with young children, which was based on the four-stage multiliteracies model: experiencing, conceptualizing, analyzing and applying creatively. The main purpose of the study was to develop children’s critical awareness of linguistic diversity through popular culture texts in a collaborative, creative and multimodal educational environment. The program was carried out for two school years: a) in the first school year, an intervention was implemented to 2<sup>nd</sup> grade children of a Greek primary school, and b) in the second school year, a similar intervention was applied to children of the 1<sup>st</sup> grade. In this article, we report on the results of the first school year’s intervention. The results revealed the positive impact of the program on children’s ability to easily distinguish between different types of speech styles due to geographical, age and socio-economic factors. The children understood – at least to some extent – that the texts of popular culture tend to display language diversity in a distorted and stigmatized way. The results of those implementations were very encouraging; a fact that stimulates our interest in continuing respective ventures by involving a wider sample of students and incorporating a greater range of popular culture texts.</p> Eleni Griva, Katerina Maroniti, Anastasia Stamou Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 An Exploration of Beliefs about Gender Differences in Language Use <p>It is the natural order of things for humans to acquire beliefs and conform to stereotypes in an attempt to explain phenomena surrounding them. These mental constructs are known to have a pervasive influence on the way people think and act, and therefore are partly responsible for shaping our social reality. Thus, due to their impact, scientific exploration is needed to illuminate their nature and so enable humans to act upon these findings. Beliefs or stereotypes that are being studied in this particular research are those held about the differences in language use by men and women. Acknowledging that people in Bosnia and Herzegovina largely comply to traditional, patriarchal social norms, this study aims to elucidate the matter by investigating whether students of a private university situated in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, conform to widespread stereotypes about language and gender, women’s speech and men’s speech in particular, and whether males and females differ in conformity to the stereotypes.</p> Esma Latić, Amna Brdarević Čeljo Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Academic Subject Areas and English Language Learning Strategies: Any Relationships? <p>This study is an attempt to resolve the contradictory findings concerning the relationship between learners’ English language learning strategies and their academic subject areas. A two-phased mixed-methods research approach, consisting of a questionnaire and a semi-structured interview, was adopted for the study. 250 students speaking English as a second language and studying five different subject areas at various London universities responded to a questionnaire on the English language learning strategies they used. The results showed that the preference for learning strategies differed significantly between students of different subject areas. Whilst cognitive strategies were reported to be the most commonly used ones by medicine and finance students, metacognitive, memory-related and social strategies were mostly used by law, music and social science students respectively. The least common set of strategies reported to be used by law and finance students was affective strategies, whereas compensatory, cognitive and metacognitive strategies were the least used ones by medicine, music and social science students in turn. A semi-structured interview was conducted with 10 of the participants to disclose the reasons behind these learners’ choices of learning strategies and the contributory factors which might influence their choices. The results showed that the participants attributed their choices to factors such as the nature of their academic exposure, of their academic instructions, their learning styles, their motivations and their domestic backgrounds. The pedagogical and research significance of the study are described in the concluding remarks.</p> Ahmad Nazari, Tanvi Warty Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Influence of Students’ Sociocultural Background on the IELTS Speaking Test Preparation Process <p>The article is aimed at highlighting the sociocultural factors a teacher/IELTS instructor should consider preparing Russian students for the IELTS exam. The main focus of the study was on four speech functions most frequently used in the IELTS Speaking Test: explaining and paraphrasing, expressing personal opinion, providing personal information, and summarizing. The study aims to question the assumption that the problems arising in the use of these speech functions are provoked by the students’ low language level and to investigate if there are any sociocultural issues connected with the use of the above-mentioned speech functions influencing students’ performance during the IELTS Speaking Test. The study was conducted among first-year students at the Higher School of Economics (HSE) in the Faculty of Computer Science. To see the problem from a different perspective, the study involved not only the first-year students who seem to struggle with the speech functions but also their English teachers who can provide trustworthy first-hand information on the problems the students frequently face. The results of the study demonstrate that the cause of problems students encounter using the speech functions should not be attributed only to their language knowledge, as do the majority of interviewed teachers. The way students tend to explain, paraphrase, summarize, express their opinion and provide personal information is culturally defined which influences students’ ability to perform these functions effectively. To help Russian students avoid sociocultural problems preparing for the IELTS Speaking Test, a teacher/IELTS instructor should aim to increase students’ sociocultural awareness of the pitfalls in the use of the essential speech functions and sociocultural competence in a foreign language.</p> Galina Pavlovskaya, Anastasia Lord Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Teaching For Justice: Introducing Translanguaging in an Undergraduate TESOL Course <p>This study investigates how introducing translanguaging as a way to affirm language and culture impacted students’ understandings of learning and teaching in a TESOL certificate course offered at a university in the northeast of the United States. As researchers, teachers, and students committed to justice, we explored the impact of introducing translanguaging in a course that was originally designed as a Sheltered English Immersion (SEI) course through collaborative, qualitative approaches of thematic analysis and macro- and micro-level analyses of power based on our unique individual experiences in the classroom. We found across our analysis that introducing translanguaging provided opportunities to shift assumptions and that, overall, students demonstrated critical sociocultural understandings of language that are foundational in teaching for justice. Ultimately, while we recognize the need for more explicit discussion about the purpose and pedagogy of translanguaging, the shifts towards teaching and embracing multilingual and multicultural realities through translanguaging which the study identified can contribute to the field of language education by demonstrating how teachers might open up possibilities in teaching for justice.</p> Elizabeth Robinson, Zhongfeng Tian, Tiffany Martínez, Aybahar Qarqeen Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Prospects of Kiswahili as a Medium of Instruction in the Tanzanian Education and Training Policy <p>Based on the research findings, Tanzania has been cognisant of the fact that students can learn better in a language they understand. The government has been issuing policies with the intent to make Kiswahili a medium of instruction at all levels of education but without implementation. The study was conducted using documentary review, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussions to examine government generated documents, namely the Cultural Policy of 1997, Education and Training Policy of 1995 and 2014 on the use of Kiswahili as medium of instruction (MoI). The focus was to examine the government generated documents on the intent to use Kiswahili as a medium of instruction and the implementation of this decision, to analyse stakeholders’ views on the appropriate medium of instruction, and to give a critical analysis as to why the proposal to make Kiswahili MoI in the Education and Training Policy could face some challenges in implementation. Previous policies, reports, the perceptions and views of education stakeholders were analysed. The findings indicate that there have been some initiatives to make Kiswahili a medium of instruction at all levels of education but such initiatives have been crippled by lack of a political will and misconceptions by some stakeholders who question the possibility for the learners to use Kiswahili as the MoI and still learn English, the language Tanzania needs for wider communication. The article concludes that although the proposed policy is suitable in Tanzania and actually long overdue, we are sceptical of its implementation. This is based on the previous state of affairs in which the government did not implement the proposed switch to Kiswahili as indicated in the reviewed policies and government pronouncements.</p> Eustard Rutalemwa Tibategeza, Theodorus du Plessis Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Educating for Creativity within Higher Education: Integration of Research into Media Practice. McIntyre, P., Fulton, J., Paton, E., Kerrigan, S., Meany, M. , London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. 240 pp. eBook ISBN 978-3-319-90674-4 Elena Tereshchenko Copyright (c) Sun, 30 Sep 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Relationships Between the Accuracy of Self-Evaluation, Kanji Proficiency and the Learning Environment for Adolescent Japanese Heritage Language Learners <p>This paper focuses on Japanese heritage language (JHL) learners in an Australian context. The paper reports on a research project in a hoshuu-koo institution, a Japanese supplementary school, and explores the experiences of a group of Year 7 students. This study was initiated by identifying to what extent JHL learners can recognise their own skills, especially in proficiency in kanji, one of the Japanese scripts. It was predicted that several elements could relate to the accuracy of self-evaluation. By exploring levels of self-evaluation skills and the elements concerned in Japanese learning, the aim of the research was to help develop differentiated curriculum in the future. Data were based on student performance on kanji tests and answers to questionnaires, and the Excel Correl Function was used to calculate correlation coefficients. Graphs were also used to analyse the data. It was found that students who had relatively high kanji proficiency, especially in higher year levels, recognised their own skills but an overall overestimation was found amongst other students. Specific areas of kanji learning, such as okurigana and radicals, were identified as areas that need to be enhanced for appropriate self-evaluation for most of the students. Learning environment related to evaluation skills was also identified. Concluding comments centre on implications for further teaching approaches and research on the enhancement of kanji self-evaluation skills.</p> Mizue Aiko Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 “West” or “Vest”? Pronunciation of English Consonants [w] and [v] in the Utterances of Slovak EFL Speakers <p>The paper investigates the pronunciation of the labiodental fricative [v] and the labial-velar approximant [w] in the word-initial position in English utterances by Slovak speakers. The objective of the study is to explore which of the two consonants appear to be more problematic for Slovak learners of English. 40 students from a Slovak university produced spontaneous monologues in English, which were recorded using a computer and a standard microphone. Afterwards, two native English speakers conducted a subjective auditory analysis in an attempt to identify errors in the subjects’ pronunciation. The results demonstrate that Slovak learners of English frequently encounter difficulties in pronouncing the two consonants, sometimes substituting [v] for [w] and vice versa. The data obtained indicate that the subjects were beset with problems mispronouncing the two sounds to almost the same degree. Possible causes of the erroneous pronunciation seem to involve native language interference, devoting extra effort to approach authentic English pronunciation, and the neglect of pronunciation instruction.</p> Rastislav Metruk Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Bulgarian University Students’ Learning Style Preferences in ESL Classrooms <p>Students’ attitudes towards learning and the perception and beliefs behind them may have a profound influence on learning behaviour and learning outcomes. Teachers’ awareness of such needs and preferences will result in more realistic and useful teaching strategies which, in turn, will have a facilitative effect on the learning process. Thus, learners should be given opportunities to express their own language learning preferences, especially in reference to the definition of objectives in general and awareness of strategies for learning. Moved with the conviction that learners and their preferences are of crucial importance in the development of learner autonomy, 74 students in Blagoevgrad, Bulgaria, were asked about their perceptions and preferences on ESL classroom activities. The results showed that learners were not always able to clearly define their preferences. This may be due to the fact that learning a foreign language is a culturally and psychologically different process than learning any other subject via the individual’s first language. Thus, educators have the additional responsibility to help learners to find their learning strengths, and by cognitive training help students to expand their learning style preferences. Also, implications from this study clearly display that teacher training programmes should seriously examine and implement innovative ways of teaching English considering students’ identity, character, and limitations.</p> Flora Komlosi Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Impact of Mobile Assisted Language Learning on Learner Autonomy in EFL Reading Context <p>Traditional classrooms confine English as a Foreign Language (EFL) reading to the textbook and the classroom setting, something that demotivates active reading. With the advent of mobile technology, however, such boundaries can be broken to include external reading materials where students could read and share anytime and anywhere. This paper investigates the role of mobile technology in enhancing Learner Autonomy (LA) in the EFL reading context among students in the Preparatory Year (PY) of Najran University in Saudi Arabia. A reading class of 30 students utilised mobile applications (WhatsApp and internet search engines such as Google) to access external reading materials and interact with their peers and teachers outside the classroom. Qualitative data collection underwent a number of procedures. The baseline data was constructed from the students’ portfolios, which reported the participants’ traditional reading practices and use of mobiles. Then, the participants were encouraged to use internet search engines and WhatsApp group to share their readings. Finally, five participants were interviewed. The data analysis revealed that the participants’ LA is improved through the use of selected mobile applications in terms of taking responsibility for and making decisions about reading materials and the time and place of reading. The study recommends further investigation into the role of mobile applications for generating learners’ own tasks and writing skills.</p> Abduljalil Nasr Hazaea, Ali Abbas Alzubi Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Overcoming the Grammar Barrier in Foreign Language Learning: The Role of Television Series <p>Mastering the grammar of a foreign language requires learning the rules as well as the contexts within which the structures are used. Formal grammar instruction should therefore be augmented by exposing learners to authentic language. According to the literature, watching television series in the target language improves listening comprehension and enhances vocabulary acquisition. No study to date, however, has investigated the recursive use of one series, in the classroom and over an entire course, to explicitly teach grammar. Presenting apt pedagogical arguments substantiated by the literature on grammar instruction and evidence from the classroom, this article maintains that a television series can be an invaluable source of authentic language and an excellent means to teach grammar in context. It recommends using the dialogues in the scenes to teach and illustrate grammatical structures, especially those that are very different or do not exist in the learners’ mother tongue. The article also proposes giving students pertinent writing tasks and adequate corrective feedback to help them internalize these structures. Consistent with recent studies indicating a strong connection between emotion and cognition, this method raises the students’ motivation and enhances grammar learning; as such, it can supplant or complement conventional practices of grammar instruction and thereby warrants empirical studies. Finally, the article delineates directions for future research to elucidate how television series contribute to the teaching and learning of grammar.</p> Deborah Azaryad Shechter Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 A Study on the Attributes of Effective English Lecturers as Perceived by EFL Learners: The Case of Indonesia <p>This study aims to uncover the attributes of effective English lecturers and any significant differences between male and female EFL learners in determining the attributes of effective EFL lecturers. The study utilized a descriptive study design by asking 52 EFL learners to be respondents by filling in a questionnaire. The results depicted that the attributes associated with the ‘rapport’ category were friendliness, relationship, experiences, positive attitudes, and sense of humour. An independent t-test also showed there was no significant difference between male and female EFL learners in determining these attributes. The attributes of the ‘delivery’ category included enthusiasm, clarity, correction, and encouragement. The attributes of the ‘fairness’ category included treatment and standard. The attributes of the ‘knowledge and credibility’ category included proficiency and knowledge. The attributes of the ‘organization and preparation’ category included preparation, course contents, objectives, and materials. As for the implications, the attributes enable EFL lecturers to figure out various strategies for teaching English. Moreover, it is advantageous for EFL learners in that they can adjust their learning styles with the attributes.</p> Heri Mudra Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Androcentrism of English proverbs and Anti-Proverbs with Gender Components <p>Since the 20th century with the birth of feminism, gender studies have undergone analysis in many areas of knowledge. Special attention has been paid to the theory of androcentricity in the English language and the deficiency of female images in speech. In this article, the images of men and women presented by English proverbs and anti-proverbs are analyzed. The objective of this research is to find out if proverbs are androcentric and present male mindsets and world views. The other aim is to check whether anti-proverbs reflect the changing role of women in society. To fulfill these purposes, proverbs with gender components (man/woman, wife/husband, he/she etс.) were selected and underwent a semantic analysis. In order to reveal the evolution of the images of men and women we compared the images of men and women illustrated in proverbs with those shown in anti-proverbs with the same gender components. As a result, we came to the conclusion that both proverbs and anti-proverbs are androcentric; however, in anti-proverbs female opinions are more representative when compared to proverbs. To sum up, it is obvious that the role of women is changing and the changes are reflected in the language.</p> Maria Kirsanova Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 French Grammatical Accents: Practices, Sociolinguistic Foundations, and Pedagogical Implications in a Multilingual Setting <p>The present paper probes the use of French grammatical accents by English-speaking learners of French in a multilingual country: Cameroon. Its aim is twofold. First, it highlights the extent to which the various appropriative uses of French by French-speaking Cameroonians influence the form of the language spoken by their English-speaking counterparts. Then, it checks the effect of the language spoken by these learners on their written language. The data were collected among 160 Form 3 and Form 4 pupils from two high schools in the town of Maroua, Far North Region, Cameroon. Six tests and fifty tape recordings were carried out among the target population. Also, four French teachers were tape recorded during the exercise. The analysis of the errors made by the informants revealed significant patterns of acute and grave accents in the spoken language of respondents. These patterns of oral usage were found to strongly correlate with their written production. It therefore appears that Cameroon French displays some specific phonological characteristics, which severely spoils the acquisition of grammatical accents by English-speaking Cameroonians. These findings may revive the debate over whether French in former colonies should adapt to its contexts or keep its native purity.</p> Antoine Willy Ndzotom Mbakop, Sonia Laurei Emalieu Kanko, Adrienne Michelle Tida Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Key Issues in English for Specific Purposes in Higher Education. Yasemin Kirkgöz & Kenan Dikilitaş (Eds.), Vol. 11. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2018. 353 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-70213-1 Lilia Raitskaya Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Learner-Centered Approaches: Their Effect on the Oral Fluency of Students <p>The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of learner-centered approaches on the oral fluency of the second-year students in English 202-Communicative English. The study employed a quasi-experimental method, particularly the pre-test and post-test experimental group design. Two groups of students were utilized as the experimental groups of the study. The findings of the study revealed that both groups acquired the same level of oral fluency before the intervention but acquired different levels of fluency after. Based on the result, the conclusion was that the level of speaking fluency of the participants exposed to cooperative learning improved significantly more than those exposed to task-based teaching. An experimental study conducted over a longer period of time and employing randomization could be considered to further investigate the possible results.</p> Melody Joyce Maasin-Ceballos, Roel Famat Ceballos Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 “That German stuff”: Negotiating Linguistic Legitimacy in a Foreign Language Classroom <p>This qualitative case study of one German suburban high school classroom in the Midwestern United States examines how learners of German negotiate their linguistic legitimacy, which is defined as discursively constructed acceptance or validation for their language use. Specifically, it investigates how the students negotiated legitimacy for using their target language German in their classroom. Based on the premise that linguistic legitimacy is crucial for the maintenance and development of speakers’ languages, data was collected and analyzed from classroom recordings, semi-structured interviews, and participant observations. Findings revealed that, while English dominated the lessons as the default legitimate language among the students, using German was accepted and valued under certain circumstances. Such instances of linguistic legitimacy included the use of German for entertainment or in role plays, a pattern which points to the students’ desire to mitigate investment and display “uninvestment” in learning or using German. Implications for foreign language (FL) pedagogy and teacher education are discussed.</p> Johanna Ennser-Kananen Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Incidence and Nature of Negotiations for Meaning during Uncontrolled Speaking Practice in English as a Foreign Language Classrooms <p>The past three decades have seen an increasing interest in negotiation for meaning as interactional processes which advance language acquisition. Motivated by this claim, a number of studies have set out to determine the tasks that best promote negotiations for meaning (NfMs). However, this research has mostly tended to investigate NfM under experimental conditions, leaving considerably unexplored the negotiated interactions that might take place in real English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms. In response to this, the present study sets out to investigate the incidence and nature of NfM in three uncontrolled EFL classrooms. In examining several teacher- and learner-led speaking tasks at basic, intermediate and advanced levels, the findings indicate that the amount of NfM is lower than those reported in previous studies. Moreover, a qualitative analysis of the interactional data suggests that the NfM across proficiency levels was limited in nature, and thus did not provide learners with all the learning benefits inherent in negotiation for meaning. These findings raise intriguing questions as to teachers’ and learners’ opportunities to negotiate meaning during EFL classroom interactions, and ways through which they can promote negotiated interactions in their EFL classrooms.</p> Edgar Emmanuell Garcia-Ponce, Irasema Mora-Pablo Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Effects of Mnemonic Vocabulary Instruction on Content Vocabulary Learning of Students <p>The present article is an investigation about the effects of mnemonic vocabulary teaching to improve content vocabulary learning in EFL classrooms. A major issue with the most of the past studies was that they paid little or no attention to the effects of using mnemonic strategies to improve content vocabulary learning. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how key word mnemonic vocabulary teaching can improve the comprehension and learning of the content vocabulary for the students. To this end, 256 third year senior high school students from 6 senior high schools in Zanjan (Iran) were selected through a multistage cluster random sampling method and based on the Cambridge placement test (2010), 230 students proved to be upper intermediate. A quasi-experimental design was used to determine the effects of a mnemonic vocabulary intervention on content vocabulary learning. In this article there were one control group (A, n=115), and one experimental group (C, n=115) all of which were male and there were selected randomly. This study was done in May 2017, and over four weeks, in two thirty-minute sessions per week, group C received key word mnemonic instruction. In order to test the effects of mnemonic vocabulary teaching on content vocabulary learning, the covariance analysis was employed and the results demonstrated that by eliminating the covariance factor of the pre-test, mnemonic vocabulary instruction improved content vocabulary learning for students. The use of keyword mnemonics as a means to differentiate instruction is an educational result that can assist teachers.</p> Parima Fasih, Siros Izadpanah, Ali Shahnavaz Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 The Validation Process in the IELTS Reading Component: Reading Requirements for Preparing International Students <p>Although IELTS is coordinated under a framework for test development and validation, there is some controversy about exam results’ correlation with students’ post-admission intellectual, academic and professional performance. The theoretical part of the research aims to investigate the extent to which the IELTS reading component relates meaningfully to interpretations of validity. The empirical part addresses questions about perceptions of the impact of the IELTS reading preparation on adjustment to the challenges of academia and further academic performance and variances in these perceptions depending on the area of study and the level of language mastery. While having quite different views on assessing IELTS validity, the researchers agree that academic success is enhanced through and based on extensive substantive reading. The methodology relied on both qualitative and quantitative data derived from an anonymous online questionnaire: 133 international students with Russian citizenship, Global Education Programme (GEP) finalists, participated in the survey in summer 2017. Five different result interpretations were taken into account: overall results, those for sciences and humanities, higher and lower achievers’ results. The discussion is built around test-takers’ opinions on the IELTS exam, the reading component and scores. The issues discussed include, but are not limited to: reading strategies, information sources required at university, tasks effectiveness, exam preparation usefulness to academic adjustment and its influence on academic achievement, its resourcefulness for the formation of linguistic capabilities, and respondents’ perception of extra factors for exam success. Potentially increasing jeopardy of negative washback is shown as an emerging problem. Although test-taking ability is not depicted as a crucially important factor affecting exam success, it is increasingly significant and its harmful effects may be expressed in illusionary higher levels of validity due to visually improved results. Quality preparation for the reading test can train a number of essential skills required in academia; however, preparation itself does not appear to be a significant factor for smoother adjustment to academic challenges, as it is highly dependent on preliminary linguistic background. There is a necessity to communicate broader information to learners through the IELTS handbook, website and other communication channels. EAP tutors should encourage their students to make efforts to cover the subject without framing it within boundaries of measurement, but with a clear understanding of future academic and professional challenges.</p> Marina Kovalenko Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 There is no Alternative! Student Perceptions of Learning in a Second Language in Lebanon <p>Since 1997, children in Lebanese state schools are taught most of the curriculum in English or French. The children’s first language, Arabic, may be used even less in private schools, which educate 70% of children. In many countries, mother tongue education is seen as a right but in Lebanon it is taken for granted that children are taught in English or French. Written opinions were collected from seventy-five university students who were asked about the language in education policy. The results of a thematic analysis were discussed with a focus group of eight students. Findings point to a widespread acceptance of the policy, partly based on an underlying belief in the unsuitability of Arabic for the 21st century and a perception that the Lebanese are culturally predisposed to learn languages. Using the concept of linguistic imperialism, we discuss these results with reference to French colonialism and the global spread of English medium instruction. We also use a critical definition of ideology to discuss how a discourse in favour of the language in education policy, which actually favours the interests of the Lebanese elite, has been internalised by the students who see emigration as their only future.</p> Mike Orr, Samer Annous Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Influence of L1 Properties and Proficiency on the Acquisition of Gender Agreement <p>This research investigates the influence of L1 properties and proficiency level on the acquisition of the Spanish gender agreement system. French and English-speaking learners of Spanish participated in the study. Subjects were divided into four different groups considering their L1 (French and English) and their proficiency level (intermediate and advanced). Subjects completed three different tasks: an untimed grammaticality judgment (UGJT) to measure learners’ explicit knowledge, an elicited oral imitation (EOI) and an eye-tracking to assess their implicit knowledge of the Spanish gender agreement system. From this multi-tiered methodology, this research project aimed to examine whether L1 properties and proficiency level influence learners’ explicit and implicit knowledge of the Spanish gender agreement. The results from the UGJT suggest that both French and English learners can notice noun-adjective discord. As for the EOI and eye-tracking tasks, only the French advanced learners clearly demonstrated integrated implicit knowledge of gender agreement. Therefore, based on these results, we can imply that implicit knowledge of gender agreement is acquired later and that L1 properties influence this whole process, even at an advanced proficiency level.</p> Pierre-Luc Paquet Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 EFL Reading Metacomprehension from the Developmental Perspective: A Longitudinal Case <p>As the first half of the literacy equation (reading + writing = literacy), reading is primarily considered a dynamic meaning-focused interaction in which the reader is required to build comprehension of a text in a non-linear way. In other words, the reader is constantly checking the degree to which he or she understands the given information, simultaneously trying to identify comprehension failures and employ efficient repair strategies. This ability is termed metacomprehension; when it is enhanced, comprehension is generally more successful. Metacomprehension appears to be even more important for non-native readers because of their limited vocabulary and grammar. This is the key theoretical background of the single case study described in the current paper since it follows the developmental path of an EFL learner (Croatian teenager) with special focus on his reading ability. The main aim of the study was to see how his metacomprehension would develop over an extended period of exposure to EFL in the school setting. It was based on the hypothesis that extended exposure would result in better awareness of comprehension during the reading process. The study was conducted in two parts (Grade 5 and Grade 8) and comprised a number of stages. Being a case study, multiple sources and techniques were applied in gathering data, both qualitative and quantitative, such as: a multiple-choice comprehension test, a questionnaire for measuring the reader’s awareness of strategic reading processes (in Grade 5), an English proficiency test, a text restoration task, the self-revelation (stream-of-consciousness data) technique, a post-reading interview, and observation notes (in Grade 8). The results obtained initially indicated the participant’s good EFL reading comprehension performance but later showed that he was less successful, which was related to his poor EFL proficiency. In terms of reading strategy, it can be added that, despite some initial strategic abilities, the participant did not significantly develop his strategic behaviour for EFL reading. To conclude, prolonged exposure to EFL did not lead to better reading metacomprehension in this particular school learner.</p> Renata Šamo, Alenka Mikulec Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 Gender, Power and Political Speech. Women and Language in the 2015 UK General Election. Deborah Cameron and Sylvia Shaw. London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. ISBN: 978-1-137-58752-7 Elena Gabrielova Copyright (c) Sat, 31 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0300 A Survey of Teachers’ Experience in Implementing Yoruba Medium of Instruction in the Lower Primary Schools of Ikire Nigeria <div>The paper investigated the local implementation of the National Policy of Education (NPE) on the use of mother tongues or the languages of the immediate community. Using a case study approach of Yoruba medium of instruction in Ikire in the south-western part of Nigeria, data were collected from 50 teachers from both private and public schools. These respondents were selected on being able to satisfy the following conditions: first, they should be able to communicate in Yoruba; second, they should have adequate teaching experience; third, they should have good academic qualifications; and fourth, they should have been teaching, for more than a year, Elementary Science (the particular classroom subject the study examined being taught to the pupils). These conditions ensured the teachers engaged had cognate experience in teaching a science subject that can reveal the level of terminology development within Yoruba as an adequate medium of mother tongue instruction. The result affirmed the advantages of Yoruba medium of instruction over English; however, Yoruba was not exclusively used for the pupils contrary to the expectation in the mother tongue medium of instruction policy. Most of the teachers used in the study preferred to employ a bilingual mode of instruction combining Yoruba with English, claiming that English had better educational resources for the subject they were teaching. This paper, though, based on a local case study, can be used to estimate the expected limitation to be encountered while implementing mother tongue instruction in a similar linguistic domain.</div> Akintoye Japhet Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Maternal Ideology in an MTN® Advertisement: Analysing Socio-Semiotic Reality as a Campaign for Peace <div>It seemed that the issue of maternal ideology as a device to curb social menaces has not attracted scholars. Thus, the study examined the use of maternal ideology in mobile telephone network (MTN®) as a means of influencing recipients against vices instead of the primary assignment of the product advertising. The author utilised an advert of MTN, Sharing is good, as an object of analysis. The theoretical underpinning of the investigation was the concept of Theme as a functional approach to social semiotics. Theme interconnects the text with visual images to elucidate the meaning-making potential of the framework. The study revealed that the mother and the daughter operate in the same functional environment without any objections from either. The relationship demonstrates humility, complementarity, shareability and generosity. The message of the advert could influence corrupt elements of society such as terrorists, kidnappers, and violence campaigners to abandon nefarious acts and to embrace good behaviours. The idea propagated, perhaps, deserves voluntary emulation. Thus, the article argues that national and international stakeholders could make policy to direct advertising professionals to communicate their thoughts with materials that can support peace and harmony in our society. Such an exercise could persuade advertisers to reduce their focus on mental capitalism alone.</div> Taofeek Olaiwola Dalamu Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Test Takers’ Perceptions towards BEC Exams: a Case Study of a Russian University <div>This is a qualitative study of candidates’ motivation to take BEC exams and their expectations towards the exam results, which was conducted at the Cambridge Exam Preparation Center in a Russian university. The research dataset comprised 33 participants who took part in face-to-face in-depth semi-structured interviews. Overall, candidates show a positive attitude to BEC at different exam levels. The main reasons for preparing for and taking the exams are extrinsic and defined by the institutional environment. The respondents opt for BEC exams as they intend to receive an international education (master’s level) and/or build a successful career in international organizations. The study also revealed a connection between candidates’ expectations toward exam results and their age and level of language proficiency.</div> Elizaveta Smirnova, Tatyana Permyakova, Marina Sheveleva Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Semantic Expansion of ‘Wife’ and ‘Husband’ among the Yorùbá of Southwestern Nigeria <div>Although one of the existing studies on Nigerian or African kinship terms has argued that semantic expansion of such words constitutes an absurdity to the English society, none has argued for the necessity of a specialized dictionary to address the problem of absurdity to the English society, the custodian of the English language. This is important especially now that the language has become an invaluable legacy which non-native speakers of the language use to express their culture as well as the fact that the English people now accept the Greek and Hebrew world-views through Christianity. This paper provides additional evidence in support of semantic expansion of kingship terms like ‘wife’ and ‘husband’ not only in a Nigerian or an African language but also in Greek and Hebrew languages. The paper argues that if English is to play its role as an international language, it will be desirable if our lexicographers can publish a specialized dictionary that will take care of kinship terms, as it is the case in some other specialized dictionaries on the different professions such as medicine, nursing, linguistics and agriculture, to mention but a few, so as to guide against ambiguity or absurdity that may arise in language use in social interactions.</div> Reuben Olúwáfé̩mi Ìkò̩tún Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Roundtable Discussion in Language Teaching: Assessing Subject Knowledge and Language Skills <div>Roundtable discussions have been effectively used for educational purposes for years. However, being widely used in an academic environment as a tool for education, roundtable discussions remain under-investigated as a form of summative and formative assessment. The purpose of this research was to determine the efficiency of a roundtable discussion to evaluate subject knowledge and to test EFL/ESL proficiency level both during the classroom assessment and final examination. To use a roundtable discussion as an objective assessment tool, clear criteria were developed. They included but were not limited to scoring the task completion, macro and micro skills in speaking and language components, which were assessed according to the CEFR descriptor bands appropriate to the students’ level of learning. Being crucial to the development of general communicative competence, macro and micro skills in speaking were also taken into account during the assessment stage. Results of the research showed that roundtable discussions were clearly advantageous to face-to-face interviews in honing general academic skills, assessing subject knowledge of the course and students’ EFL/ESL language skills. This suggests that the use of roundtable discussions can be recommended as a form of summative and formative assessment.</div> Aida Rodomanchenko Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Stressed and Unstressed Syllable Alternation in Educated Edo (Nigerian) English <div>Standard British English (SBE) rhythm is characterised by stressed and unstressed syllable alternation. Phonological investigations from non-native English such as Nigerian English (NE) have claimed that NE differs remarkably from SBE, especially in the area of rhythm. Existing phonological studies on Educated Edo English (EEE) – a sub-variety of NE – have been on word and variable stress while studies on stressed and unstressed syllable alternation have been rare. This study, therefore, investigated the extent to which Educated Edo English Speakers (EEES) stressed and unstressed syllable alternation conforms to SBE rhythm. Prince and Liberman’s (1977) metrical theory, which explains the alternation of strong and weak constituents in SBE rhythm units, served as a theoretical framework. A purposive sampling technique was used to select 150 (75 males and 75 females) EEES while 2 SBE speakers served as Native Baselines (NB). Speech Filing System (SFS) version 1.41 was used to record the production of a validated instrument of 40 rhythm units, with stressed and unstressed syllable alternation. The recordings were transcribed and subjected to a perceptual analysis (frequency and percentages). Out of 6000 expected instances of stressed and unstressed syllable alternation, the participants had 694 (11.6%), while inappropriate use was higher, with 5,306 (88.4%). The performance of EEES males showed 5.7% and the females 5.9%. The grids of EEES showed proliferation of Strong/Strong (S/S) juxtaposition of stressed and unstressed syllables in rhythm units, compared to the NB alternation of Weak/Strong (W/S) or Strong/Weak (S/W). Results confirmed that EEES alternation of stressed and unstressed syllables in rhythm units differ ‘markedly’ from those of the SBE form.</div> Julianah Akindele Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Style and Timbre of English Speech and Literature. Marklen E. Konurbaev. London, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016. 203 pp. ISBN 978-1-137-51947-4 Keith Rawson-Jones Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Vocabulary Strategies and Bridging the Gap from Learning to Read to Reading to Learn <div>The present study offers a solution to students’ difficulties in reading by examining the effect of two instructional strategies for teaching reading: semantic mapping and morphological analysis, using multimedia as a vehicle for achieving the desired goals. Technology in the present study incorporates fun, meaningful resources that enhance the experimental group students’ vocabulary, and allow the reading instructor to assess the students’ progress in reading. 58 EFL university students enrolled in the first year of the English Department at Al-Imam University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia participated in the present study. They were chosen randomly and were divided into two groups; an experimental group and a control one. Each group had 29 participants aged between twenty and twenty one years old. A pre-test was applied to check out their standard in comprehending the reading texts before the inauguration of the experiment. During the time of the experiment, the control group was taught by the traditional method which focuses on relying on their memorization of long lists of vocabulary, rote learning, reading aloud, repetition and the translation of the new vocabulary. Participants of the experimental group were taught by semantic mapping and morphological analysis that focus on the comprehension of the key vocabulary and concepts included in the reading texts. The experimental group only was taught in the reading classes by implementing the semantic mapping and morphological analysis strategies while the control group was taught by the traditional previously mentioned way. The post-test was applied on both groups of the study at the end of the experiment to check out the students’ reading comprehension standard. The experiment lasted for three months’ time during the first semester of the year 2015. The findings revealed that teaching reading by semantic mapping and morphological analysis strategies improved experimental group students’ comprehension of the reading texts.</div> Kholood Moustafa Alakawi Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory & Method. Jalilifar A. R. (Eds.). Ahvaz, Iran: University of Ahvaz Press, 2014. 370 pp. ISBN 978-600-141-158-8 <p>Plenty of books have written in Discourse Analysis, and the book, <em>Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory &amp; Method,</em> is another welcomed addition to this vital field of Applied Linguistics. Many books in this field are limited to a specific framework of discourse analysis (Coulthard, 1992; Christie, 2002; Gee, 1999; Walsh, 2006) to name but a few. Introducing a specific theoretical framework and orientation has almost been a tradition in preparing such textbooks, while it seems that there is a need for publications which take into account the fast-growing field of discourse analysis, where discerning similarities and differences are becoming subtle. I think similar to Hyland &amp; Paltridge (2011), <em>Directions in Discourse Analysis: Theory &amp; Method</em> by Professor Jalilifar is another attempt to meet such a need. As the title of the book indicates, the emphasis is on a wide range of recent approaches, wherein the author presents them under a separate but a related chapter. He successfully brings together similar and contradictory themes under a single topic.</p> Aiyoub Jodairi Pineh Copyright (c) Sun, 31 Dec 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Importance of Accuracy in the Use of Grammatical Terms and Concepts in the Description of the Distinctive Properties of Plains Algonquian Languages <div>The subject of this paper was inspired by my collaboration on a project involving the long-term histories of grammatical traditions led by Dr. Philomen Probert at the University of Oxford. Owing to my interest in linguistic typology and the study of the syntax-semantics-pragmatics interface in a number of languages, &nbsp;– especially Native American languages, which differ in many respects from Indo-European languages, &nbsp;–, I have observed that some languages cannot be accurately described if we use the grammatical terms and concepts commonly applied to the analysis of extensively studied languages such as English, Spanish or French, as certain grammatical properties of one language may not be equivalent to those of another and, consequently, require a different treatment. Thus, firstly, by adopting a holistic comparative perspective deriving from all areas of grammar, I aim to reveal the distinctive features that Plains Algonquian languages such as Cheyenne / Tsėhésenėstsestȯtse (Montana and Oklahoma, USA), Blackfoot / Siksiká, Kainai, and Pikani, (Montana, USA; Alberta, Canada), Arapaho / Hinóno´eitíít (Wyoming and Oklahoma, USA), and Gros Ventre / White Clay or Atsina / Aaniiih (Montana, USA) display when compared with Indo-European languages such as English, Spanish, French or German. The subsequent examination of these data will provide examples of terms and concepts that are typically used in traditional grammatical descriptions, but that do not serve to characterize the grammar of these Native American languages accurately. Finally, I will attempt to propose alternative terms and concepts that might describe the distinctive grammatical properties exhibited by these languages more adequately.</div> Avelino Corral Esteban Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Enquiry-Based Approach in Mobile-Supported Classroom to Develop Language Skills <div>This article investigates the pedagogical impact of both the mobile-testing system PeLe and an enquiry-based approach to language skills development in the context of mobile-assisted language learning. The study aims to work out a methodological framework for PeLe implementation into a language classroom through immediate feedback and formative assessment. The framework was developed and pilot tested in a joint research project, MobiLL, by EFL teachers at Lomonosov Moscow State University (Russia) and University College HiST (Norway). The analysis based on quantitative research data demonstrated that PeLe-supported language classes resulted in language skill gains. The qualitative data analysis highlighted the positive effect of mobile formative assessment and of post-test activities on learner motivation and collaboration skills. This study suggests that the use of technology was effective in engaging students in enquiry-based tasks to cultivate collaboration.</div> Svetlana Titova, Olga Samoylenko Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Applied Discourse Markers in Casual Conversations of Male Students in Dormitory Settings and Their Pedagogical Implications for EFL: An Iranian Case Study <div>This study is designed to investigate the specific discourse markers that mostly occur in casual conversations among university students who live in dormitories, and to study the amount of attention these expressions receive pedagogically in the context of improving EFL speaking skills. Regarding gender, the investigation was carried out on male students and special topics they talked about are also examined. To fulfill this objective, 6 hours and 3 minutes of casual conversations among 50 students (28 BA and 22 MA) located in 10 dormitory rooms (5 in the BA and 5 in the MA) was audio-recorded and transcribed based on Sacks, Schegloff and Jefferson’s transcription system. Furthermore, a semi-structured interview was used to investigate participants’ attitudes towards the degree of emphasis of EFL teachers on Discourse Markers (DMs). The data were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively (interview transcripts). According to the findings, 70 discourse markers recurred in the students’ interactions. Likewise, specific topics that received more attention in their conversations were identified. Moreover, the results of the semi-structured interview indicated that discourse markers did not receive sufficient attention in EFL settings. The findings of the current study suggest that instructors and material developers could give more specific attention to discourse markers. Explaining their roles in the production of accurate utterances or bringing samples of natural usage of discourse markers could be of great help to boost learners’ oral skills in the EFL context.</div> Farideh Okati, Parviz Ghasedi Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Fostering Economics Students’ Listening Skills through Self-regulated Learning <div>This study aims at fostering students’ listening skills by scaffolding their self-study learning practices in the English for Special Purposes (ESP) course. While there is a significant body of research exploring classroom-based teaching approaches, there is little empirical research into how students develop their ESP listening skills outside the classroom. Our study suggests that developing a self-regulated model for acquiring ESP listening skills in a self-study mode is an efficient way to improve students’ performance as it provides them with relevant scaffolding and makes the listening process more transparent. The article provides theoretical grounding for the self-study model. The entry-level and post-study tests in listening scores (IELTS test) are compared across the control and the experimental groups (60 students in total). The results of the study indicate that students who were developing their listening skills in a self-study mode via the designed scaffolding performed significantly better than their peers in the control group. Scaffolding self-study listening practices of students outside the classroom prove to be a significant factor in facilitating English learning in an ESP classroom.</div> Tatiana Lastochkina, Natalia Smirnova Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Displacement and Overall Conflictual Relations (OCR) as Patterns to Instantiate Academic Conflict in Major Applied Linguistics Textbooks <div>Following Giannoni’s classification of the rhetorical strategies for overt (rather than covert) negative evaluation, the current study aimed to investigate lexico-grammatical structures to instantiate Overall Conflictual Relations and Displacement as two major rhetorical strategies to realize Academic Conflict in two distinct corpora of textbooks in applied&nbsp; linguistics specifically taught at MA and PhD levels. Adopting a Mixed-Methods Approach, the study revealed the various lexico-grammatical items that were frequently used to instantiate Displacement and Overall Conflictual Relations. Qualitatively, the emerging patterns and the functions they served were delineated. At the quantitative stage of the approach, the corresponding distributions of the emerging patterns were investigated and recorded. This corpus-based study also found that the two corpora utilized resources for expression of Overall Conflictual Relations with an almost similar distribution; however, there was a statistically significant difference between the MA versus PhD textbooks concerning the use of Displacement. The study found the important functions of the strategies as the ways to put two ideas in opposition to later take side with one at the expense of discarding the other. The study also found that the strategies were among the prominent incentives to construct knowledge in the field.</div> Babak Majidzadeh, A. Majid Hayati Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Gendered Patterns in Teacher-Student Interaction in EFL Classroom: The Greek Context <div>The present research endeavours to shed light on the role that gender plays in the language classroom in the Greek context. As no systematic investigation has considered special aspects of gender and interaction in primary school classrooms, this study seeks to investigate how teachers and students position themselves within different discourses in EFL classroom interaction. The issues discussed include turn-taking and interruptions, praise and reprimand, class dominance, teacher attention and class participation in classroom interaction. Drawing on language and gender research, it was hypothesized that gender of the learner affects the learner’s language use and behaviour during EFL interaction. This study advances our understanding of gendered classroom interaction and highlights important ways in which students’ gender influences teacher-student, as well as student-student interaction. Moreover, this study sheds light on gender bias which occurs in the classroom and thus impedes teachers’ abilities to work successfully with all students. The Greek data revealed great similarity with findings of previous studies by supporting the assumption that: (a) teachers are biased in favour of boys, especially with respect to giving them more attention; (b) male students demand more teacher attention and more instructions from the teacher than their female peers; (c) female students are more likely to receive praise and positive comments, whereas male students are reprimanded by the teacher; (d) male students are more active in class participation, by taking more turns, volunteering and calling out.</div> Stella Minasyan Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 University of Ilorin Final Year Students’ Experience in Practice Teaching Exercise <div>Practice teaching is a vital aspect of the teacher preparatory program in teacher training institutions. This study examined the University of Ilorin final year students’ experience in a practice teaching exercise. It made use of descriptive survey research design. The population for this study were all students of the Faculty of Education, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria. The researchers’ self-developed questionnaire with a reliability coefficient of 0.63 was used for data collection while the data collected were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics of independent t-test. It was found that during the course of practice teaching exercises, student-teachers acquired skills which enabled them to use a variety of teaching methods, and instructional resources, improved their skills in tests construction, scoring and recording, built their teaching confidence and presentation, among others. However, student-teachers were faced with a number of challenges in the course of lesson presentation during practice teaching. It was, therefore, recommended among others, that student-teachers should not perceive their personality and logical presentation of instructional objectives as challenges but rather should embrace and exploit it to improve and widen their (cognitive) domains.</div> Musa Siddiq Abdullahi, Mussa Salisu Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Gamifying Content and Language Integrated Learning with Serious Videogames <div>New methods and approaches focusing on foreign language teaching are continuously being developed and applied in the classroom at different educational levels. The interest in raising learners’ competences in foreign languages has been a fact in the last few decades. In this sense, approaches integrating the learning of non-linguistic content through a vehicular language that is not the learners’ mother tongue have been widely used around the world. However, it seems that some benefits of those approaches integrating language and content could be further strengthened if the time of exposure to content and language was higher and if students were highly motivated to learn. To this purpose, this article suggests that serious videogames could be a suitable tool to provide learners with further teaching support and increase their motivation in a playful context and introduces a model that aims at gamifying and integrating content and language learning through serious videogames.</div> Ricardo Casañ Pitarch Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Second and Foreign Language Education. Nelleke Van Deusen-Scholl & Stephen May (Eds.), 3rd ed., Vol. 4. Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 2017. 458 pp. ISBN 978-3-319-02245-1 Lilia Raitskaya Copyright (c) Sat, 30 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0300 More on the Categorial Status of (T)àbí in Yorùbá Grammar <div>Yorùbá language is one of the major languages spoken in Nigeria. The term is also used to refer to the language and the native speakers. As shown in Oyetade, Yorùbá language is spoken in six states that constitute the southwest of Nigeria – Lagos, Ọ̀yọ́, Ọ̀ṣun, Ògùn, Òndó, and Èkìtì. This study investigated the Standard Yorùbá used in the Southwest Nigeria by focusing on the conjunction t(àbí). Findings reveal that there are varieties of Yorùbá language based on the location of the speakers and the state they occupy in Nigeria: Ọ̀yọ́ dialect, Ègbá dialect, Èkìtí dialect, Òndó dialect and Ọ̀wọ̀ dialect to mention a few. Previous scholarly works on Yorùbá grammar show that (t)àbí performs two functions and it is ascribed with two nomenclatures namely conjunction and polar question word. However, this present paper provides another view that is different from the views of the earlier scholars. Findings in this study reveal that t(àbí) is a conjunction in all its positions of occurrence and the researcher argues against its use as a polar question word.&nbsp; It is established in this study among other things that its occurrence at sentence initial position is as a result of ellipsis. The study also maintains that where it appears at sentence medial position, the polar question word has been deleted.</div> Adeoye Jelili Adewale Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Relative and Conditional Clause Constructions in Ìyàgbà Dialect <div>Relative Clause has been discussed as a subordinate clause used to qualify a noun. It narrows down the meaning of the noun it qualifies. A relative clause marker tí is inserted to accomplish the noun qualified having coded in the sentence initially in Yoruba language &nbsp;on the one hand. On the other hand, a conditional clause in Yoruba language is introduced with tí-clause by coding it in the sentence initially as well.&nbsp; The paper focuses on relative clause and conditional clause constructions in the Ìyàgbà dialect of Yoruba; a regional dialect in the north-east Yoruba. The author observes that though there are many scholarly works on the relative and conditional clause constructions in the Yoruba language, attention has not been paid to the relative and conditional clause constructions in the dialects of Yoruba. The data were collected from the informants from these dialect communities who reside in these communities and speak the dialects fluently, and the literature materials on these topics. The data presentation shall be based on descriptive analysis.&nbsp; Findings reveal that relative clause markers in the Ìyàgbà dialect are in complementary distribution; they occur in an exclusive environment. Apart from that, conditional clause markers are not attested in the dialect.</div> Akintoye Oluwole Samuel Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Vowel Deletion and Insertion in Úwù <div>Úwù is one of the many endangered languages in Nigeria.The number of its fluent speakers is believed to be less than 2000.The language is spoken in a small community known as Àyèré in Ìjùmú Local Government Area (LGA) of Kogi state. This paper describes the manifestation of vowel deletion and insertion in the language with the view of testing earlier assertions on the nature of vowel deletion and insertion in languages that are genetically related to Úwù. Apart from this, the paper is also an attempt to document these phonological phenomena (i.e. vowel deletion and insertion) before the language goes into extinction. About six hundred (600) lexical items of Úwù were collected for this research work with the aid of the 1000 word-list of the Summer Institute of Linguistics. Both linear and non-linear models were adopted for analysis in this research work. Cases involving segmental phonemes were&nbsp; analyzed with the linear phonology, while cases of feature stability and feature spread wereanalyzed using the non-linear model. The paper, among other things, reveals that the pattern of vowel deletion is predictable in Úwù, auto-segments like tone (mostly high tone), nasality and labial or round features usually persist even when the vowel which bore them was deleted. Apart from this, the paper also reveals that [i] is the epenthetic vowel in Úwù, and lastly, it is argued in the paper that nouns in Úwù are virtually vowel initial.</div> Allison Idris Olawale Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Assessment and Evaluation Techniques <div>Assessment and evaluation have always been important; they are linked to language teaching methodology, program outcomes, language teacher competencies, language standards and second language acquisition training. They can serve many different policies and can come in different forms. Assessment and evaluation have always been seen as the responsibility of the specialists, but they have rarely been included as a component in English language teacher (ELT) training. However, the ELT field has been experiencing a major shift in assessment and evaluation with effects on teachers, and learners around the world. It has also been influenced by a major questioning of traditional forms of testing and the underlying psychometric principles of measurement in ELT. Recent studies reveal that the reconceptualization of English language assessment and evaluation provides systematic information about student learning in relation to their performance and contributes to better understanding of their strengths and weaknesses. In many ways ELT has lagged behind the rest of education in the exploration of new theories and assessment and evaluation tools, including self-assessment. This research gap was generated partly because of the lack of integration with mainstream educational theory and practice in many areas of ELT, and partly because of powerful positions of traditional English language tests. The attempt to bridge this gap has lead to the research carried out. The aim of this article is to elaborate different assessment techniques that may better address student learning needs, improve student learning and engage students in self-assessment, including the sequence of steps that could lead to self-assessment. The study shows that the techniques implemented to develop self-assessment enable students to perform well.</div> Tatiana Baranovskaya, Valentina Shaforostova Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of Music and M-Learning in English: Vocabulary Gain Among Tertiary Students <div>Undoubtedly, mobile technology has started to be visible in the field of education, as can be seen by the increasing number of publications that have appeared in recent years. This can also be proven with the existence of the new term in education – M-learning. Several types of mobile devices are accessible, such as wireless laptops, portable MP3 players, personal digital assistants (PDAs), and electronic dictionaries, although smart phones and iPads are the devices that have started to attract particular attention from educators. It is also noticeable that listening to music is one of the most important features in the aforementioned mobile devices. Against this backdrop, this study explores the benefits of integrating music and mobile devices in English vocabulary learning among tertiary students in a private university in Malaysia. As this study uses quantitative approach, a pre-test and a post-test were used to obtain data to analyse whether there was a gain in students’ vocabulary knowledge after vocabulary lessons using English songs and mobile devices were conducted. In addition, a survey was used to show if students had a positive outlook in learning vocabulary through music and mobile devices. The findings of this study indicated that there was an increase in the students’ vocabulary knowledge and students were enthusiastic to learn vocabulary. Integration of music and mobile devices provide more opportunities to enhance English vocabulary learning and act as a suitable tool for learning anytime and anywhere. Therefore, educators should find innovative ways to use mobile devices to teach the future students.</div> Regina Dorairaju, Manimekalai Jambulingam Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 A New Training Workshop for Students’ IELTS Exam Mastering <div>The paper is devoted to the problem of improving written communication skills in the university. It is intended to underline the importance of mastering writing skills when teaching a foreign language. Much attention is paid to teaching experience and approaches for students’ mastering of the IELTS (International English Language Testing System) exam. This article is intended to fill the gaps in methodological and pedagogical aspects of teaching description of visual information materials in English. The authors worked out and implemented a new training workshop which is aimed at teaching and practicing graph description of visual information. Based on the curriculum a new syllabus has been drafted that provides further distribution of thematic, lexical and grammatical material given the specific nature of graphical material. The authors propose a two-stage teaching approach and methodological algorithm about how to work out exam strategies and form the required exam competences. The article highlights the outcomes and the challenges that are likely to arise when implementing the approach suggested by the authors. The proposed methodology can be used as a part of general foreign language training.</div> Rimma Ivanova, Andrey Ivanov, Mariya Lyashenko Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Creating High-Frequency, Naturalistic Opportunities to Develop Small Talk Skills in EFL Classrooms <div>The paper is the outcome of an action research project that investigated factors that keep students from participating in classroom small talk (ST). In-class observations, surveys and students’ logs, backed by the author’s self-reflection resulted in an intervention plan which aimed to help students with their anxiety and ST apprehension. The final role plays, as well as the survey demonstrated that there was a change in how the students noticed and used the opportunities to utilize ST. Specifically, they started to see the potential of classroom talk for putting ST skills into practice. Another finding is the need to raise the students’ awareness of ST as a social and linguistic skill, to clearly establish ground rules for practising ST, and to create high-frequency, naturalistic opportunities to develop ST in class. It is argued in the paper that ST skills can be practised in the classroom beyond the purposefully designed activities, i.e. in spontaneous interactions between the teacher and the students. Such interactions may decrease the students' anxieties and reluctance to get engaged in small talk. This change would have a positive effect on their outside-the-classroom interactions in English, both in academic and work-place situations.</div> Irina Kuznetsova Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Move Structure of Research Article Abstracts on Management: Contrastive Study (the Case of English and Russian) <div>Although a plethora of papers have proved a seminal role of move-based genre analysis in cross-linguistic research of academic communication and EAP/ESP teaching and learning, there is a lack of respective linguistic or pedagogically motivated studies of research articles (RAs) and their parts aimed at comparing English and Russian. Using Hyland’s (2000) 5-move model, the current research seeks to determine the most obvious cross-linguistic differences in the move structure of abstracts of research articles on management for these languages. Based on a move analysis of the English- and Russian-language corpora each comprising 20 unstructured RA abstracts, the research revealed conformity of most English-language abstracts to Hyland’s model, while the Russian abstracts principally displayed a three-move structure containing ‘purpose’, ‘method’ and ‘product’, and included the ‘introduction’ and ‘conclusion’ moves only occasionally. Other significant discrepancies comprised the English-language authors’ tendency to provide precise or detailed indication of research methods and results, in contrast to their brief indication or over-generalized mentioning by Russian writers, as well as greater length of the English-language abstracts and their stricter concordance to standard move sequence than those of the Russian abstracts. Though the research was conducted on relatively small corpora and was descriptive in nature, its findings might be of interest to genre analysts as well as to L2 theorists and practitioners.</div> Elena Zanina Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Hancock, M. (2017). PronPack, Books 1-4. Chester: Hancock McDonald ELT ISBN 978-0-9957575-4-7 Alla Minasyan Copyright (c) Fri, 30 Jun 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Story Genres in SFL: A More Flexible Taxonomy. Extrapolating a Taxonomy of Story Genres in Spanish to Story Genres in English <div>The purpose of this article is: (i) to highlight the importance of makingthe generic structure of the story genres proposed by Plum (2004) and Martin and Rose (2008) more flexible within the Systemic Functional Framework (SFL); (ii) to take up a taxonomy proposed for story genres in Spanish (Salmaso 2009, 2010 a, 2010 b, 2012 a , 2014) which grants more flexibility to the generic structure of the five genres of the narrative family (‘recounts’, ‘narratives’, ‘anecdotes’, ‘exempla’ and ‘observations’) (Plum 2004, Martin and Rose 2008); (iii) to engage in a comparative study of the generic structure of one of the story genres: ‘anecdote’.To this end, nine instances of ‘anecdotes’ wereanalyzed. All of the ‘anecdotes’ are written by native speakers of English belonging to different age and gender groups but with similar educational backgrounds (higher education). The examples are analyzed following Salmaso (2010, 2014) and comparisons are drawn between some aspects of the analysis presented herein withthe analyses done following Plum’s (2004) and Martin and Rose’s (2008) taxonomies. Results show that it is possible to extrapolate the taxonomy of story genres in Spanish to English, in particular with respect to the genre ‘anecdote’ which is the focus of this article. Furthermore, this taxonomy enriches the analysis of ‘anecdotes’ andmay be simpler and clearer for applied purposes, such as teaching.</div> Grisel Salmaso Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Motivation of Russian Students Towards the Learning of English <div>This paper seeks to analyze the attitudes and motivation for learning English of students in the city of Surgut, in the Russian Federation. The investigation was carried out in November 2013 by means of self-completion questionnaires distributed to 30 students aged between 13 and 17 who had studied English for at least two years in private language schools although all of them had studied at least one foreign language within the Russian national education system. The students were divided into two main categories: students who are citizens of the Russian Federation who come from bilingual families (BF), such as Tatar, Bashkir, Ukrainian or others, and students from Russian monolingual families (MF). The results were analyzed from different motivational views, namely achievement, instrumental, integrative, extrinsic, and intrinsic motivations. This methodology allowed the researcher to acquire a multi-perspective vision of what impelled Russian students to learn English, what they expected of that knowledge, and whether there were differences between both groups. The results showed a high level of motivation among both genders of bilingual students and among girls from Russian monolingual families, while non-bilingual boys’ results were much more discreet. Although this research was<br>carried out in according to concrete standards of age and education, the results can increase the scientific understanding of motivation for second-language learning in contexts where that second language is not necessary, used or even known by the community in its daily life, as well as the perception of language learning by monolingual and by bilingual individuals.</div> Flora Komlósi Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Chronopotic Information of the Non-Dialogic Part of American Dramatic Text (Based On 20th Century American Plays) <div>It is well-known that any dramatic text consists of two main blocks – the dialogic represented by actors’ speech and the non-dialogic part represented by the author’s indications (remarks). This article seeks to analyze the informative potential of the non-dialogic part of a dramatic text from the point of view of its content-related and semantic characteristics, and in its peculiarity is considered as a distinctive feature of the American linguocultural area. The topic of the content of the non-dialogic part is rendered by chronotope and anthropocentric information, which reveal the point that a dramatic text is encoded in the verbalization of extra-linguistic space/time and of a human being. Special attention is paid to spatiotemporal indications as the constituents of chronotopic information. The interior and scenery descriptions as subtypes of spatial loci are subjects of the research as well. <br>The investigation was carried out on the bases of 45 dramatic texts created by American authors of the 20th century. The research methods were component data mining, descriptive analytical method and linguistic comparison. The results showed that the distinctive feature of the American plays of the first half of the 20th century was the presence of large pieces of text and specific information in spatiotemporal indications in the non-dialogic part. Furthermore, the results affirmed that during the reading of modern American dramatic texts it might seem as though the authors forgot about the original orientation of plays for performance on stage. Some of the spatiotemporal indications were bound not to be embodied by a stage director and were available only for a reader, who in this aspect was equal to a reader of a prosaic text. As for a viewer, they are highly unlikely to perceive the author’s descriptions of the scenery in full informational content and consequently they would face a definite information gap.</div> Tatiana Orlova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Give an Envelope for the Boss/Give a Brown Envelope for the Boss- On the Semantics and Characteristics of the Metaphors for Bribe Across Cultures: Focus on Cameroon and Nigeria <div>This paper sets out to study in a comparative perspective the semantics and the characteristics of the metaphors for bribe used by Cameroonians and Nigerians and discuss the factors which can account for the choice of these metaphors. The data for the study were collected from participant observation, novels, interviews, scientific papers and online sources and the work is discussed from the vantage point of functional grammar and cognitive linguistics. The findings of the study reveal that in order to lessen the appalling nature of the act of asking for bribes, avoid sounding ridiculous and render incomprehensible the message of asking for bribe from people who are not familiar with it, these language users utilize various types of metaphors (object metaphors, anthropomorphic metaphors, vegetative metaphors as well as zoomorphic metaphors). These metaphors display some similarities (which can be accounted for by the geographical proximity between the two countries) and differences: both utilize almost the same types of metaphors and to a lesser extent the same lexical items to refer to bribe but in different proportions (object metaphors, anthropomorphic metaphors, vegetative metaphors as well as zoomorphic metaphors). Furthermore, it is found that the values conveyed by these metaphors fall under the domains of foodstuff and drinks, fauna, human beings and body parts, mailing and transportation as well as abstract realities. Also, some of these metaphors can &nbsp;be characterized as being meliorative, pejorative, vindictive and kinesthetic. Moreover, it is found that cultural, social and economic factors can provide insights to the understanding of the choice of the values used to refer to bribe by these language users. In addition, the values used to represent bribes in these countries are a depiction of their multilingual complex nature.</div> Lozzi Martial Meutem Kamtchueng Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Textual and Prosodic Features of an Oral Academic Text <div>‘Discourse is the way that language – either spoken or written – is used for communicative effect in a real-world situation (Thornbury, 2005, p. 7). Thornbury considers the text as the product and the discourse – as a communicative process that involves ‘language and the record of the language that is used in this discourse, which is ‘text’ (ibid). Although presentations are generally categorized as spoken text types, an academic presentation is a compromise between spoken and written text types: on the one hand, it is given in a classroom as an oral text; on the other hand, it is thoroughly prepared as a home assignment in the form of a written text. This article focuses on the analysis of such linguistic features of students’ presentations as cohesion, coherence, and prosody. For this analysis, data were collected from 60 2nd year students of the International College of Economics and Finance (ICEF) presentations on various economic topics which were recorded and examined (the time limit for each of the presentations was 10 minutes); out of 60, 10 presentation texts were selected for auditory analysis, and thematic centers (TCs) were examined using acoustic analysis. Measurements of prosodic parameters such as pitch, intensity, and duration (rate of utterance) were obtained using the computer programs Speech Analyzer 3.0.1 and Pratt (v.4.0.53). The results of these analyses show that students’ presentations are cohesive, coherent and contain TCs, which are characterized by specific prosodic parameters that have a certain effect on the comprehension of these texts, their expressiveness and pragmatic value.</div> Elena Velikaya Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Status of Sì in Yoruba <div>This paper examines the syntax of sentential conjunction in the Yoruba language with the view of ascertaining the actual syntactic function of sì on which opinions have been polarized in the syntax of Yoruba grammar. This paper argues that the Yoruba language has a sentential/clausal conjunction element but its structural position is not the between the two clauses. The researcher conducted a series of structured interviews and also consulted existing works targeting the sì in compound clauses so as to generate the data for the research. The research adopts the Minimalist Program (MP) as its theoretical tool for the analyses presented in the article. MP views syntactic derivations as resulting from computational systems whose operations are based on operation Select and operation Merge. Syntactic structures are built in a par-wise fashion from bottom to top by putting two items together at a time. The research shows that there are three different sì in Yoruba occurring in seemingly similar environment but they are performing different syntactic functions. One sì denotes “emphasis” as a preverbal element; the second one denotes “consecutiveness of action” while the third one performs the function of sentential/clausal conjunction, an overt realization of the in the second clause. The overtly marked sentential/clausal conjunction also has a variant, which is an abstract realization between the two conjoined clauses.</div> Olabode Abimbola Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Comparative Study of English and Russian Phraseology: Component Theory of Identity and Difference of the Seme Organization <div>This research is aimed at comparative study of English and Russian phraseology and semasiology. It provides new scientific approach to the solution of one of the most complex problems of comparative study of the phraseological material of different languages on the semantic level. This work is of great importance as it helps to define similarities and distinctions in the language picture of the world and reveal the peculiarities of different languages. It also allows to investigate ways of reflection of reality into language which gives the chance to study language picture of the world.Our research suggests that component analysis method, based on the criteria of identity and difference of seme organization of phraseological units, provides a more complex and in-depth analysis of the description of the semantic structure of phraseological meaning in English and Russian. Over 1750 phraseological units have been analysed from monolingual and bilingual phraseological dictionaries, English and Russian explanatory dictionaries to describe the structure of English and Russian phraseological units, identify stable semantic correlations between them. We further reveal three types of interlingual phraseological compliances / non-compliances: semantic equivalents, semantic analogues and partial semantic analogues. The results show strongly expressed quantitative prevalence of semantic analogues over semantic equivalents. The quantity of semantic analogues exceeds the quantity of semantic equivalents by 0.5%, which can be explained by the peculiarities of the development of the two remotely related languages. Our further study could address the comparative investigation of ways of the translation of phraseological units with no direct equivalents (culture-specific vocabulary) in other languages, which would enable translators to provide the interpretation which is more or less adequate and close to the original meaning.</div> Natalia Ilyushchenko Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Lexical and Grammatical Means of Distancing Strategy Performed in American Political Discourse <div>This article provided a survey of the English lexis and grammar constructions that serve to realize communicative intention of request aimed at distance enforcement in the American political discourse. The research method was the discourse analysis and the statistics data analysis and its interpretation. As a result, the most common and effective lexical and grammatical language means expressing the communicative intention of request were singled out and their choice explained. The results showed that in the course of the political discourse the opponents used those linguistic means that helped to minimize the pressure and save the face, thus having discussed topical disputable issues. Moreover the study showed the importance of further investigations in order to explain how communicative intentions will be received by its targets and thus how it may succeed (or fail) as a form of persuasion and influence.</div> Vera Karnyushina, Alina Makhina Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 Celebricities: Media Culture and the Phenomenology of Gadget Commodity Life. Anthony Curtis Adler. New York, NY: Fordham University Press, 2016. 264 pp. ISBN: 978-0823270804. Olga Krasnyak Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0300 The Phonetic Means of Creating a Ludic Sense in the English Nonsense Text <div>Research into the creative use of language can be a source of new knowledge about language structure and its implementation. The paper describes segmental phonetic means involved in the formation of identical or similar acoustic images which interact in the limited semantic space of such English nonsense texts as a limerick and a literary work containing transposed sounds, syllables and words (also known as spoonerisms). This ludic interaction provides the sophisticated plane of expression putting less emphasis on the conveyed message. The analysis included the following stages: 1) identifying the cases of sound-based play in typically English pieces of creative writing; 2) describing the structure and semantics of language units which embody ludic acoustic images; 3) looking at the phenomena in question with relation to such constituents of speech act as the message, the addresser and the addressee. The findings reveal that English nonsense texts the plane of expression of which is foregrounded by the creative use of phonetic means demonstrate simultaneous presence and absence of meaning. The results show that dealing with ludic senses allows to appreciate the ludic possibilities of the English phonemic inventory as well as the metalinguistic awareness and literary appreciation of the author and the recipient.<a title="License" href=""></a></div> Irina Anashkina, Ekaterina Khramova Copyright (c) 2016 National Research University Higher School of Economics Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Online Forums as a Mirror Reflecting the World of ESP <div>The article presents the analysis of most frequent threads in four Internet forums to see what can be learnt about ESP teachers’ interests and understanding of the concept of English for Specific Purposes (ESP). The results show that the majority of discussions revolve around the choice of materials for different types of ESP. This might suggest that forum members know very little about oral and written communicative strategies of a given profession and rely on the expertise of course books writers to provide them with such knowledge. Moreover, the analysis shows that forum members do not discuss how to teach individual language skills but how to teach different types of ESP which might indicate that there is a greater difference between teaching the same skills in two branches of ESP than there is between teaching different skills with a single type of ESP. The results also indicate that some users feel that ESP teachers should be interested in more than just linguistics, but there are those who claim that the main difference between ESP and general English lies in vocabulary. This polarity of opinions shows that no established view of ESP may exist. The analysis further suggests that the distinction between ESP and EGP is clearer to those who are more interested in learners’ professional needs. Finally, the choice of topics in the analysed threads indicates that forum members and their visitors are interested not only in ESP, but in subjects which have nothing to do with ESP.</div> Agnieszka Dzięcioł-Pędich Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Textbook Evaluation as a Means of Discovering Learners' and Teachers' Needs <div>Needs analysis is considered an essential step which normally precedes English for Academic Purposes course design. It allows course developers to identify the tasks the target audience has to complete, and the skills they need to master. Based on the experience of the 'English for Academics' textbook writing project, the paper shows that needs analysis can be extended to the materials evaluation stage of textbook development. The piloting undertaken at this stage involved a questionnaire which required qualitative and quantitative responses from teacher and learner participants. The respondents were encouraged to evaluate different aspects of the course implementation, e.g. timing, relevance, difficulty, sequence, clarity of instructions, etc., and suggest improvements. The questionnaire was analysed which provided course developers with the opportunity to identify additional learners' needs and to explore teachers' needs and expectations, which in many respects coincided with each other. Consequently, the learning and teaching materials were restructured in accordance with the evaluation. The changes which were introduced into the textbook and the Teachers' Notes are described. It is concluded that piloting can be an instrument to expose both pedagogical and linguistic needs, thus, providing for the triangulation of the methods and reliability of the results.</div> Svetlana Bogolepova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 On Tenor and its Prosodic Markers in Rhetorical Discourse <div>In rhetorical discourse, tenors can be formed intentionally and used as rhetorical strategies to implement the speaker's goals. The article reports on a study of the contextual category 'tenor' and its prosodic realisation in rhetorical discourse. The paper examines rhetorical, auditory and acoustic features in the samples of English academic presentations (lectures). The author argues that tenors can reflect both the relationships of the participants of a particular speech event and the relationships associated with a broader sociocultural context. Analysing tenor as a sociocultural phenomenon the author demonstrates its correlations with some specific features of British speech culture. Special attetnion is given to the role of prosody in conveying and identifying tenors. The article contains an overview of the prosodic markers of tenor: tone of voice, pitch parameters, temporal characteristics. The study of tenor and its prosodic markers contributes to a fuller understanding of the influence of contextual factors on the prosodic realisation of discourse. The observations made in the paper may be useful to develop cross-cultural communication competence and rhetorical competence of EFL students.</div> Elena Freydina Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Temporal and Aspectual Forms of Verbs in Proposition of Commissive Speech Acts: the Case of Promise, Swear and Bet <div>Numerous research on Speech Act Theory considers the pragmatic functions of various types of speech acts, their illocutionary forces and implementation in language, focusing either on their locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary constituents or on their taxonomies, whereas the analysis of semantic and syntactic properties of performative formula remains scarce. The present paper reports on the study of temporal perspective of commissive speech acts in the English language. Specifically, it examines temporal-aspectual forms in propositions of performative verbs of promise, swear and bet. The methodology to investigate temporal-aspectual features of verbs in proposition includes literature review and a continuous sampling method with the help of which the author analysed approximately 1,800 performative utterances containing commissive performative verbs. The results of research demonstrate that the set of temporal-aspectual forms as well as their frequency differ from one commissive under the study to another, while the syntactic structures of propositions is homogeneous. The study also established the correlation between the illocutionary force of commissive performative verbs and temporal-aspectual forms of verbs in proposition. The results of the study might have practical implications in teaching English as a foreign language in terms of grammar and sociocultural aspects.</div> Konstantin Khomutskii Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Graph Description as an Issue in L2 Academic English Writing <div>Young people’s interest in taking international exams such as IELTS results from student mobility and their willingness to appraise language abilities. In this paper, Academic Writing Task One of IELTS is examined. This task implies candidates comprehending graphic information and processing it in written discourse. The gap between a host of graph description tests and an insignificant number of efficient teaching methods has provided a rationale for the current study. It focuses on graph description as a cognitive, psychological and educational process and employs the analysis method in the theoretical section. Based on the action research method, drawing on 25 students’ written samples, the study has quested for peculiar language problems detrimental to processing the graph description task. The data have revealed the key pillars of successful written graph presentation: the combination of all four main skills, i.e. reading, listening, writing, and speaking; skills transfer; critical thinking and writing; the appropriate use of style; graphic literacy. It is concluded that the “constant nudging” method, a skills transfer, the use of appropriate vocabulary for describing trends alongside academic functional phrases and grammar features, the analysis of mass media information with numeric data are solutions to graph description issues. The findings have implications for preparing students for IELTS.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> <div><a title="License" href="">This article is published under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</div> Valentina Khrabrova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Challenges of Minority Teachers in a Western Society: Experience in Austria <div>The aim of this reflective article is to investigate firstly, the preconception of professionalism in teaching; secondly, whether minority teacher’s identity influences their professionalism; and, thirdly, how minority teachers affect minority students, since minority teachers face real inequality in white societies. The issue of teacher professionalism has always been controversial due to the changing nature of the profession and society’s expectations of how the profession should be. There has not been an investigation regarding minority teachers in Austria. I wish to address this gap in the research by investigating the experience of a Laotian-American in a secondary school. The investigation reveals that in spite of the efforts that governments in Canada, the United States, New Zealand, and the United Kingdom have put into recruiting minority educators, minority teacher population does not keep pace with the minority student populations. Regrettably, Austrian government does not have such a recruiting scheme. This study has the potential to raise debates about minorities in the Austrian educational system and contribute to existing discussion about minority educators in white society.</div> Nasy Inthisone Pfanner Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Efficiency of Individualised Resources in the Russian EFL Classroom <div>In order to plan lessons that include effective instructional strategies, it is critical for teachers to be aware of student aptitudes, personality variables, learning strategies, interests, aspirations, and talents. This paper presents a way for Russian teachers to improve their students’ speaking abilities when learning foreign languages, called individualised resources, which are based on the concept of individualisation. Individualised resources are designed to help students to actively participate in the learning process, contribute to their productivity of learning and compensate for missing abilities when mastering foreign languages. In order to verify the effectiveness of this educational tool, qualitative and quantitative indicators were applied to a classroom-based study. Research findings illustrate how the approach enhanced the students’ speaking abilities in terms of purposefulness, richness of speech content and logical progression of speech. The results presented in the article indicate that this type of training may be sufficient to shape speaking skills when teaching English.</div> Olga Stognieva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 English for Public Speaking. Ljudmila Sergeevna Chikileva. Moscow: Urite, 2016, 203 pp. ISBN: 978-5-9916-7973-2. Elena Nikulina Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Dec 2016 00:00:00 +0300 The Pragmatics of Nigerian English in Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie’s Novels <div>There are relatively few studies that have examined the pragmatization of Nigerian English in Adichie’s novelistic oeuvre. This study seeks to fill that gap by undertaking a pragmatic analysis of Nigerian English in Adichie’s Purple Hibiscus, Half of a Yellow Sun and Americanah in order to account for the pragmatic relation between utterances and meaning explication. The theory adopted for this study is pragmatic context. The analysis indicates that the use of English as reflected in the novels is pragmatically oriented which, by and large, helps elucidate the particular use of English in the non-literary situation in Nigeria. Also, the analysis demonstrates that the contexts, in which these Nigerian English expressions occur, significantly, draw from Nigeria’s sociocultural milieu, and the sociocultural milieu shapes the meaning or sense discourse participants squeeze out of utterances in interactive situations.</div> Romanus Aboh, Happiness Uduk Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Arthur Ransome and Dmitri Mitrokhin: Translating the Russian Folktale <div>This paper focuses on Arthur Ransome’s and Dmitri Mitrokhin’ s collaboration in translating the Russian folktales. Old Peter’s Russian Tales (1916), Ransome’ s first serious (and sustained) success, was the translation product of his early sojourns in Russia, illustrated by Dmitri Mitrokhin. The aims of the research are threefold: (1) to explore the cooperation between the British translator and the Russian artist in translating Russian folktales as an insight into the intense British-Russian dialogues of the time; (2) to examine the interaction of the translated texts and the images in terms of the translation strategy employed, as well as the influences of the contemporaneous tastes and trends; (3) to gain a better understanding of the translator’s agency and human interaction in building an important link between the cultures and the countries. The research has required close reading of primary and secondary sources, including archival materials, as well as the textual analysis of the translated stories, the translator’s correspondence and other papers pertaining to his micro-history. These latter are used to explore the interplay of the translated text and the pictures against the background of personal, as well as wider British-Russian cultural interaction at the turn of the twentieth century.<br>Ransome’s book of over three hundred pages was illustrated with Mitrokhin’s seven full-page coloured pictures and twenty nine black and white head-pieces and end-pieces, which the author found admirable and his publishers were pleased with, though later editions would be illustrated by the other artists as well. Ransome’s translation strategy in retelling the Russian tales to his young reader at home was largely domesticating; however, he was careful to convey their culturally specific character, which was enhanced by Mitrokhin’s effort to acquaint the foreign reader with the Russian peasant world. The main result achieved is that the examination of the interplay between the text and the picture shows the specific relevance of aesthetically and emotionally powerful images in rendering the culturally distinct character of folktales. This is, therefore, a case study of the intercultural dialogue between the translator and the artist which produced an interesting interpretation of Russian folklore for the international reader and made an important contribution to the cultural links between the countries.</div> Tatiana Bogrdanova, Asya Usmanova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Pragmalinguistic Features of American Presidents’ Inaugural Addresses of the Last Century (1913-2013) <div>This paper studies the pragmalinguistic markers of the political discourse in American presidents’ inaugural addresses made from 1913 to 2013 and concentrates on the language units that reveal the potential of perlocutionary speech acts. The study analyzes the role of such domains of pragmalinguistics as deixis, reference, presupposition, cognitive structures in inaugural addresses, and their representation in speeches. The method of discourse-analysis, the method of contextual analysis, and the method of quantitative processing are used in the study. <br>The means of deixis have several functions in these speech texts, providing some extra-linguistic information and additional meaning for the utterances. Firstly, the change of deictic center conveys a certain shift of attention and redirects the addressee’s thoughts. Secondly, the means of deixis represent presuppositions, ones which members of the public are unlikely to question since these presuppositions are explicitly referred to and the information provided includes people’s background assumptions. Thirdly, personal, temporal and spatial deixes are integrated in the actualization of the most important concept found in every speech of every American president – the concept of the “American nation”: deictic forms along with nouns with evaluative implications add to the pragmatic effect of the concept reflected in speech. Fourthly, the deictic means participate in the construction of a binary that juxtaposes “us” vs. “them”, typical of political utterances in the genre of inaugural addresses. <br>A special form of reference constituting an important part of the concept of the “American nation” in inauguration addresses is precedent phenomena. Their main sources are the Bible, speeches of former politicians, texts of famous American documents. Reference to religious discourse and parts of national history familiar to everyone brings the feeling of joy to the public appealing to a basic national myth of a happy community. Thus means of deixis, presupposition and special type of reference are the characteristic of American inauguration speeches used for the purposes of strong pragmalinguistic effect. The dynamics of the usage of the precedent phenomena and other constituent parts of the concept “American nation” reflects the changes in political context of the epoch.</div> Anna Gabets, Arnau Barios Gené Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Exploring Meaning: Verb Semantics and Quality <div>This paper examines the syntagmemic structure of verbs and their correlations with their logical-semantic quality drawing on the methods of componential analysis and morphothemic analysis proposed by A.I. Fefilov. The former approach helps us to single out the word standard semes, which are fixed in a language, whereas the latter is particularly useful in studying the nature of word semantics, its structure, and correlation with the concept and category of thought. Our research suggests that the method of morphothemic analysis provides a complex, multifaceted, in-depth analysis of the semantic structure of the verb.<br>One hypothesis raised by the study is that the verb reveals the processual peculiarities of the quality. The logical-semantic quality is fixed in verb semantics in terms of its propositional relations, which are implicit in a verb. The results show that the quality represented by a verb is concomitant as it goes together with relationality, the main component of a verb syntagmeme. Our research studied the effect of the verbal part of speech categorization on the manifestation of quality in a language. <br>The work provides new insights into the semantic structure of language units, exploring for the first time the logical and semantic qualities of verbs, which were subjected to a systematic morphothematic analysis. A further study could address the comparative investigation of the category of quality in different languages in terms of its translation. Additionally, this would enable an identification of the main trends of representing quality with the help of a verb in different languages and would distinguish a new unconventional syntagmeme that changes and modifies the category of quality in speech and consequently find out the ways in which a language determines categories of thought.</div> Natalie Gridina Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Linguistic Approaches in Teaching History of Science and Technology Courses through a Content Block on Cognitive Sciences <div>History of Science and Technology (HST) courses are increasingly becoming part of core curriculums for undergraduate students due to an increased emphasis on scientific literacy. HST courses should aim to help students gain an understanding of the nature of science and should enable them to reflect epistemologically. The authors suggest teaching HST courses through several interchangeable content blocks, and herein, present the material and discussion topics that they believe should be implemented in a content block on cognitive sciences through a linguistic component. <br>Language has a special meaning for humankind as it indicates its unique ability in the evolutionary development and in creating a new social environment. Therefore, paying special attention to the linguistic component when teaching HST courses helps students obtain a basic level of linguistic knowledge as its interdisciplinary approaches are increased through the study of cognitive sciences such as evolutionary psychology, behavioral genetics, and artificial intelligence.<br>In order to represent a practical meaning of linguistics in the processes of constructing social environment, the authors conducted an empirical study based on the analysis of media texts. We asked 63 sophomores majoring in social sciences and humanities, who are affiliated with the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia and the Moscow State Institute of International Relations to choose 60 media texts, both broadsheets and tabloids, on social and political content. Estimating and analyzing the surveys allowed the authors to determine students’ abilities to identify communicative strategies that were used in the media texts, to understand the role of the strategies in forming the social environment of a person or a group, and to recognize how using the tools of cognitive linguistics enhances sophisticated thinking and develops synergetic perceptions of every individual.</div> Olga Krasnyak, Mik Fanguy, Elena Tikhonova Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Resiliency in Education: The Case of Foreign Language Teachers <div>The article covers the basics of resilience and the factors promoting sustainability within the field of education. With escalating demands on teachers in terms of increasing social pressures and expectations regarding quality of pedagogical provision, ’resilience’ is a topical area of research. The main objectives of the study include ascertaining how prone to professional stress are educators compared to other professionals, pointing out the areas where the major mismatches lie, and revealing the factors influencing professional adjustment in the sphere of foreign language teaching. The correlation and interdependence of resilience, emotional intelligence, social support and other individual factors have been studied using a valid sample of specialists in language teaching: resilience was considered one of the central, individual protective factors, as well as a serious prerequisite for a successful and fulfilling life. The sample of the study comprised three groups: first, senior students (future teachers); second, university academics (senior professors) and thirdly, university junior specialists. To analyze the results, statistical and correlation methods were used: different types of interdependence were indicated through regression analysis, the Kruskal–Wallis test, violin plot, and others.</div> Fatima Valieva Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Developing Teacher-trainees’ Assessment Awareness in the EFL Classroom through Project-based Learning Activity <div>Due to the Russian State Educational Standard, beginning ESL teachers should possess professional competences, including being ready to implement in their classrooms modern methods and techniques of assessing students’ achievement. However, teacher trainees are not provided with opportunities to acquire assessment skills during their learning process. Developing teacher trainees’ professional competencies during a practicum, that is, a four-week period of school-based practice teaching, may be a way to solve this problem. The key aim of the study is to investigate whether experiencing project-based learning (PBL) activity during a content-based course might raise teacher trainees’ assessment awareness and enable them to put assessment skills to practical use in their future classrooms. <br>The methodology of the present study includes developing assessment criteria for self- and peer-reflective weekly journals, developing survey questions and descriptive rubrics for grading oral presentations of PBL activity. The results of the research demonstrate that experiencing a PBL activity as a learner can trigger a deeper assessment awareness of project-based learning activities and can help develop confidence in recognizing teacher trainees’ personal strong points essential for their future professional life. By experiencing a PBL activity, teacher-trainees gain insights about its process and observe how students’ self-awareness and confidence in assessment practice are fostered through authentic tasks during a content-based course. This study therefore proposes that project-based learning activity can raise teacher-trainees’ assessment awareness and should be integrated in the teacher-training ESL course at the Astrakhan State University, Russia.</div> Elena Galichkina Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Facebook Birthday Postings from a Language Ecology Perspective in Russian, German, American English, and French <div>The aim of the paper is to examine Facebook postings from an ecological language perspective as a special type of discourse of “everyday life” with an orientating function, to evaluate the environmental potential of this network that influences the character of the posts, and to determine cultural differences in thinking and expressing birthday greetings on the Facebook platform.<br>The paper outlines some specific features of the Facebook environment or niche such as the reduced characters of the message, the use of abbreviations, simple structures, merging and interaction of written and spoken languages, and the use of graphical signs to convey emotions. The methodological approach was to compile a database by randomly gathering, from various Facebook timelines, 680 birthday postings in Russian, American English, German, and French. The posts were then analyzed according to three dimensions: (1) focus of the greetings on the specific day or years to come / life in general (Western vs. non-Western countries, analytical vs. holistic mindsets); (2) use of nominal structures; (3) stress/emphasis on characteristic features of a person, compliments.<br>Various psycholinguistic and cultural aspects of the verbal greetings from the timelines of Russian, American, German, and French users of the social net are singled out in terms of holistic and analytical types of critical thinking. The data collection shows that while Russians and Germans predominantly display holistic thinking, as expressed in birthday postings of a general character and wishes in general for the upcoming year or years to come, Americans and the French display analytical thinking as their birthday posts are more focused on that special day. Most birthday postings are usually short and have one similar pattern. Americans use a lot of praise and stress personal relations. French postings are very emotional often expressing love and kisses. <br>This study shows that analysis of Facebook birthday postings should be multimodal and complex, taking into account a complex interaction of a number of internal and external factors and a personal inclusion into socio-cultural interactions.</div> Olga Karamalak Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 A New Type of Lexicographic Product: Thesaurus of Text Strings. Field of EFL/ESL <div>The “Thesaurus of Text Strings: The field of EFL/ESL” (TTS) is a structured collection of text fragments extracted from various texts, both printed and digital, that deal with teaching and learning English as a foreign or second language. While the sublanguage of ELF/ESL has been vastly discussed in literature, the TTS is a radically new type of dictionary due to the nature of its constituent objects, the text strings. A text string (TS) is a lexicographic object of unique status; as such, it has not been used before. It is different from all other objects traditionally treated in dictionaries of various types, such as words, collocations, idioms, proverbs and other reproducible linguistic units. TSs have been extracted from specialized texts, they are supposed to reflect the various aspects, even the minute ones, of the referential situations presented in the texts. The TSs in the Thesaurus are arranged mostly according to the conceptual structure of the Foreign Languages Teaching Methodology (a deductive logical procedure, ‘head – bottom’), but on the lower, more concrete, levels of analysis the TSs have to be grouped following the opposite logical direction, ‘bottom – up’ as the Teaching Methodology concepts prove to be too general to differentiate between finer meaning distinctions of numerous TSs. The TTS supplies a considerable amount of carefully structured professional information in language form. It is aimed primarily at teachers of English who are not native speakers of the language and who wish to make their professional communication in English more authentic. It can also be used in classroom activities with students who are preparing for teaching careers. Thus, a conclusion may be justified that the TTS has both the theoretical significance for lexicography and the practical value as a good professional teaching material. The TTS may also be meaningfully considered against the background of today’s Corpus Linguistics. Though not a ‘true’ corpus per se, it has certain features that are essentially similar to those of contemporary linguistic corpora.</div> Iosif Keselman Copyright (c) Thu, 01 Sep 2016 00:00:00 +0300 A Comparative Analysis of Temporal Structure of English Poetic Texts for Adults and Children <div>Poetry has always been under the focus of scholars’ attention, though the problem of performing a comparative analysis of children’s and adults’ poetry has not received enough attention yet. The study undertaken is aimed to fill in this gap and provide the analysis of English poetry for adults and children with the attempt to identify some grammatical peculiarities of the corresponding poetic texts. The scope of the texts for examination is limited to English poetry of the nineteenth – twentieth centuries focused on the animal theme. The analysis of the temporal structure of the texts selected was based on the method elaborated by Ludmila Nozdrina in her work “Poetics of grammar categories” (2004). The results of the study have proved the hypothesis stated: there are some differences in temporal structuring of the nineteenth–twentieth century poetic English texts focused on the animal theme. The main difference lies in targeting the poem: whether it appeals to adults or children. The current study contains quantitative information on the usage of certain grammatical phenomena within the texts analyzed, and the attempts of their interpretations. Consequently, the study might be of particular interest for those scholars who do research on differentiating grammatical peculiarities of poetry in general and drawing differences between children’s and adults’ poetry, in particular.</div> Nataliya Denisova, Dinara Yusipova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Shakespearean Charactonyms in Translations into Russian <div>Despite a long tradition of translating Shakespeare’s works into Russian, names as a stylistic device have been underestimated by scholars. The study deals with the space or environment of characteristic names (charactonyms) and its rendering into Russian in the works Henry IV, Part II and The Merry Wives of Windsor. The material for the research is a dozen translations into Russian done in the nineteenth and the twentieth centuries including annotated editions which may show additional interpretations of the names. Comparing the puns based on names and their equivalents as a method shows how to identify overlapping approaches to translating stylistic devices involving charactonyms. The analysis of the translations reveals a variety of ways to render names, in particular within text, which is rare, and the application of commentaries in annotated editions. This research demonstrates that some equivalents of names have been repeated in several translations and hence the translators relied on the best practice instead of suggesting their own solutions. The research also shows the strategies and patterns employed by Russian translators and writers, which may be a good resource for literary translators.</div> Alexander Kalashnikov Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Perceptions and Use of English by Secondary School Students From Central Asia <div>After almost two centuries of functioning almost exclusively through the medium of Russian, the governments of the now-independent Kyrgyzstan are trying to implement the knowledge of English among the population as an auxiliary tool of interaction with the rest of the world. Nevertheless, and despite the huge amount of money invested in English education, there is a lack of studies about the attitudes of the Kyrgyzstani students toward this language and the use that they intend to do of it. This paper analyses the attitudes toward the learning and use of English by Kyrgyzstani secondary-school students from four educational models in two regions of the country. A questionnaire given to 182 students from different local and foreign ethnic and language backgrounds was used to collect data. The results of the research show different approaches depending on the location of the schools and the educational program followed. For most students English may be a good asset but very few consider it a language that can be used in contexts other than the classroom.</div> Flora Komlósi, Siarl Ferdinand Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 The Problems of Russian-Speaking Students of non-Ninguistic Specializations in CAE Speaking. Test: Analysis of Teaching Experience <div>Today Russian undergraduate students of non-linguistic specializations aspiring to careers in different spheres succeed in acquiring Certificates in Advanced English. Nevertheless, the candidates state that they experience the most serious difficulties while sitting the Speaking Test of the CAE exam as they lack oral language skills. The researched literature does not consider Russian students’ predicaments purposely and gives a broad overview of the main students’ concerns. This study is an attempt to explore the particular Russian students’ problems of forming oral language skills arising in the process of their training for the Speaking Test and to work out the ways of their remedies. Qualitative methods have allowed finding out the highly specific nature of individual experience. The methods used in the study also included an open-ended language learning questionnaire and a survey to support the assessment of the received data. The results indicate that there are quite a number of pedagogical and educational variables that should be permanently trained and developed as they can influence students’ success.</div> Galina Levitskaya, Elizaveta Levitskaya Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 On the Question of the Semiotic Typology of Signs <div>he article is in the context of linguistic and semiotic studies related to theoretical issues of base units’ typology, in particular, theoretical linguistics and “pure” semiotics. Sign is one of the basic units of linguistics and semiotics. The way of understanding the nature and structure of the sign essentially influences the nature of almost all studies. The depth, consistency and completeness of perception of signs are reflected in the currently existing classifications of signs. The article fills in a gap in the perception of the sign variety nature in the semiotic and linguistic understanding. It provides a tool for the correct interpretation of a large body of facts related to the secondary use of proper names in the specific function and precedential units in a broad context. The analysis of the actual texts indicates that the current classifications of signs do not reflect in their entirety all the signs which actually exist and function in the space of language and culture. Beyond the limits proposed by these classification schemes are left the phenomena of sufficient frequency. The article based on the appositive and distribution methods describes and analyzes the type of signs that has not been previously perceived by researchers as an independent one and has not been studied at all. This sign is called a bifocal sign and it is consistently described in terms of its specific features which do not allow mixing it with other types of signs. The results show that an adequate interpretation of any text which includes a bifocal sign is impossible without taking into account the specificity of this sign.</div> Alexander Shuneyko, Olga Chibisova Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Strategic Hedging: A Comparative Study of Methods, Results and Discussion (and Conclusion) Sections of Research Articles in English and Russian <div>A great deal of research has established the importance of hedging and its cross-linguistic differences for intercultural academic communication and, consequently, for L2 EAP/ESP teaching and learning. However, strategic hedging seen as discourse-based hedging strategies related to the rhetorical structure of research papers seems to be underexplored. The article reports on a mainly descriptive study of its cross-linguistic variation in the Methods, Results and Discussion (and Conclusion) sections of English-medium and Russian-medium research articles in the field of management and marketing. Based on D. Koutsantoni’s taxonomy, this paper analyzes 20 published articles to compare the types, frequencies and reveal some tendencies of using strategic hedges in both languages. The research detects the same two major categories of strategic hedges (agreement with other research and limitations) for both languages, with the same further subcategorization for each of them. The findings reveal differences between the languages in the overall frequencies of strategic hedges and the frequencies of their subtypes, as well as in tendencies of their usage including Russian writers’ preference for referring to general opinion, implicit ways of expressing limitations and giving one explanation for obscure results, as compared to English writers. The research outcomes indicate that cross-linguistic variation of strategic hedging in English-medium and Russian-medium research articles is an important feature to be taken into account in EAP/ESP teaching and learning.</div> Elena Zanina Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Polysemy in Linguistic Terminological Systems Based on the Analysis of French Linguistic Terms <div>The article reports on the features of polysemy in French terminological systems of linguistics at inter-system and intra-system levels. The existing studies concerning terminological semantics allow pointing out two aspects of the term structure: a semantic structure representing a complex of meanings, and a structure of the terminological meaning representing a complex of semes. The first aspect supposes the analysis of terminological polysemy regarded as a negative characteristic of terms. According to the second aspect some particularities of denotative and significative levels and their correlation to scientific concepts can be analyzed. In the given study the component analysis of the definitions of French terms – such as ‘sémantème’, ‘mot’ and ‘signe’ – reveals different types of polysemy and terminological variation. The analysis of semantic structures of these terms shows that terminological deviations are caused by objective differences at significative and denotative levels of the meaning as well as by the subjective use of occasional contexts of terms in linguistic research. The suggested results allow constructing a new classification of meaning relations of linguistic terms. Each type of relations is correlated to different elements of the term structure. The hierarchy of these elements is embodied into an abstract model that can be applied for the analysis of any term of the modern linguistic terminology.</div> Denis Zolotukhin Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Systemic Genesis Approach in Psychology <div>This article analyses V.D. Shadrikov’s scientific work in the field of psychology. V.D. Shadrikov is Doctor of Psychology, Professor, and Fellow of the Russian Academy of Education. The article briefly covers his fundamental publications on activity, abilities, and the human inner world, examining the issues raised in his publications in the context of the evolution of educational theory and methodology. Shadrikov develops the methodology of systemic genesis approach in psychology, demonstrating that the systemic genesis paradigm opens new aspects in fundamental and applied psychology. This paradigm provides an opportunity to carry out research on a new level.</div> Galina Suvorova, Tatiana Baranovskaya Copyright (c) Wed, 01 Jun 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Learning From Collaborative Teacher Development in an EAP/ESP Context <div>‘Collaborative teacher development is an increasingly common kind of teacher development found in a wide range of language teaching contexts’. Teachers can collaborate with other teachers in writing materials, books, doing research, and analysing observed lessons. Even the format and the content of a teaching journal can be developed in cooperation with other colleagues. The article reports on collaborative teacher development of English language teachers at the National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE) in Moscow, Russia. The study used a survey to investigate needs for teacher development at NRU HSE. Findings reveal that not all teachers practise self-observation; many teachers believe that feedback must be personal; the majority of teachers find peer observation subjective; almost all teachers have teaching journals but their understanding of what a teaching journal is seems to be erroneous. These results indicate that without a clear understanding of the listed above issues and their implementation in a given context professional development can hardly be possible. The author analyses the results of this research and makes suggestions about teacher development as a continuous and collaborative process.</div> Elena Velikaya Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 The Role of English as a Medium of Instruction in Reshaping Bahraini Senior Teachers’ Perceptions of Their Roles as Middle Leadership in their Schools (An Exploratory Study) <div>This paper investigates the role English plays as the medium of instruction in reshaping Bahraini senior teachers’ perceptions about their actual role in their schools during their professional development program at the Bahrain Teachers College at the University of Bahrain. The data were collected using questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and focus group discussion with an opportunity sample of the senior teachers who recently graduated from the program. The quantitative findings show that using English played a significant role in motivating the participants to form positive attitudes towards their professional development program while the qualitative data reveal how the target language participated in enabling those teachers reshape their perceptions about certain professional practices and assisted them in gaining new skills to improve the overall performance of their teachers in school. The study concludes with implications of how using English as the main medium of instruction facilitates conceptual change in professional development programs.</div> Hasan Al-Wadi Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Taking a MOOC: Socio-cultural Aspects of Virtual Interaction In a Multicultural Learning Community <div>Featuring different approaches to Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) among education policy makers, theorists and practitioners in the field and highlighting an increasing popularity of this educational phenomenon worldwide, the article provides a brief record of MOOCs’ success at Harvard University and the National Research University Higher School of Economics (HSE) making the authors move gradually towards the main focus of this paper – socio-cultural problems, that Russian students frequently face while taking a MOOC in English. The survey described in the article revealed that HSE students establishing online communication with their peers from other countries often complain about sudden, unexpected communication breakdowns that they find difficult to explain and that are likely to occur due to the socio-cultural differences existing between communication partners in a multicultural learning community. The results of the survey presented in the article indicate that there is an urgent need to find effective ways to increase the students’ level of socio-cultural competence that would allow them to communicate successfully in a new virtual learning environment.</div> Galina Pavlovskaya, Molly Perkins Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Developing Chemistry Students’ Study Skills through Integration of Visual Organizers in Teaching ESP <div>This study is aimed at development chemistry students’ study skills through integration of visual organizers (VOs) in teaching English for Special Purposes (ESP). The research specifically examined the students’ attitude toward the chemistry content of English classes and the achievement of two groups of 54 students under study. The results of the study indicated that there is a significant difference between the level of study skills in dealing with chemistry in English of the students in the experimental group before and after the experiment. The result of students’ perception about visual organizers, as a strategy and approach to teaching English through chemistry, highlighted the rаtionale in this undertaking. All communicative activities and presentations used by the teacher in the class incorporating visual organizers in identified formats such word webbing, web diagram, flowcharts, concept maps, Venn diagram and pictorial graphics obtained a positive perception of chemistry information in English. Performance, on the other hand, indicated the VO’s effectiveness in facilitating the learning of English and study skills development. This analysis implied that the experimental group performed significantly better than their peers in the control group. Facilitating English learning through chemistry content can be made through integrating visual organizers that help develop students’ study skills. Hence, the use of visual organizers effect changes in learning chemistry content for the better. Visual organizers help students perform better and improve their attitude toward learning English for professional communication.</div> Anastasia Sitnikova, Olga Simonova, Mrityunjoy Kar Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 The Influence of Self-editing on Micro Skills Development in Academic Writing in English as a Second Language <div>Self-editing skills are extremely important in foreign language learning; without them university students tend not to write appropriately in academic contexts. These skills are, however, often less developed in school graduates and it is thus essential to understand the challenges faced by university students. The present study was conducted to answer the research question: whether self-editing as a final component of written production can boost the writing micro skills of learners. It analyzes English-language essays written by 50 second-year ESL students in the Faculty of Economics at the National Research University Higher School of Economics, Moscow, and reports on the most frequent errors committed in their formal writing. The aim of this study is to focus on the stage of self-editing and identify the role of self-editing in micro skills development. Findings reveal that students are most often weak at producing coherent and cohesive paragraphs; they also lack appropriate argumentation and are often inaccurate in using grammatical structures and lexis. Results also suggest, however, that L2 writing students can improve their own writing by transferring micro skills they learn when editing texts. The present study may contribute to teachers’ views on developing micro skills of student writers.</div> Tatiana Pospelova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 The Modern Educational Domain: Prerequisites and Prospects for Individual Learning Path Development <div>This article considers the prerequisites and perspectives of individual learning path (ILP) development in the framework of a student-centered educational paradigm; it defines the rationale of ILP and examines the introduction of project learning technology (PLT) into ILP modeling in higher educational institutions. We claim that identification of students’ individual features and compliance with their requirements becomes feasible via the integration of project learning technology into the educational process with relevant pedagogical and computer support. The special emphasis is put on the idea that ILP framing is aimed at enhancing students’ autonomy and responsibility for their education, fostering cooperation skills in a close dialogue with other participants in out-of-class projects and teachers. In this scenario an individualized approach is to be implemented in a harmonious solidarity with principles of cooperation and collaboration. <br>To verify the above-mentioned ideas we conducted an experiment based on cognitive, diagnostic and empirical methods. Two groups of students participated in our research project at the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics in September – November 2015. They are second-year undergraduate students majoring in Economics and studying English as a second language. We designed individual study routes (ISR) for each student and handed them out. The ISR contained progress steps of the project, a set of assignments and deadlines for project submission. The students were provided with opportunity to play an active role devising and altering an ISR. <br>Research findings show that ILP modeling boosts student’s motivation to learn English as a second language, enables students’ reflexive skills, identifies their individual features while simultaneously developing cooperation and collaboration skills.</div> Katerina Stepanenko, Liya Torosyan Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Constructions Expressing Inaccurate Quantity: Functions and Status in Modern English <div>The article reviews lexical units expressing evaluative (inaccurate and/or unspecified) measurement in Modern English. The study reveals that this measurement, located on the periphery of scientific and traditional metric systems, has great significance for operational partitioning and measuring different kinds of objects in the everyday life of native English speakers. To date, there have been no detailed descriptions of lexical representations for evaluative measurement in the English language since existing papers do not approach this issue systematically. The present article, based on the British National Corpus and English dictionaries, as well as on extracts from modern American fiction, is the result of an analysis and systematization of the constructions, or patterns, expressing inaccurate and unspecified quantities in Modern English. In particular, the article provides a list of such constructions and their corresponding classifications based on their functions as specific classifiers. It also studies the structure of each type distinguished, the semantics of their components and their combinatory specificities. The analysis determines the status of these constructions in the paradigm of the category of measure in relation to the other language means of the given conceptual category, with which the constructions in question form the corresponding functional-semantic field. The results of the conducted research reveal how the “human factor” manifests itself in the English-language culture when expressing quantity evaluation of the outward things.</div> Nina Zhukova, Ludmila Petrochenko Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Discourse Elements in English Academic Discourse <div>This paper presents a study of discourse elements in spoken academic discourse – a lecture – and identifies their specificities. The study seeks to identify discourse elements in a wide body of research material; to study structural, functional and pragmatic features of discourse elements in terms of the implementation of the intentions of the speaker; to identify from the auditory analysis any prosodic features of discourse elements. Discourse elements are specifically defined from the point of view of their pragmatics: the intention of the speaker influences the language of the lecture and the way in which ideas are connected with words. <br>The study on discourse elements included several stages. Research material consisted of audio recordings of Philology lectures to students studying English as a foreign language by three native speakers of English (General American standard of pronunciation), all of whom are professors at American colleges and universities. In total, 6 lectures were recorded; they formed a wide body of research material lasting 7 hours 33 minutes. This wide body of research material consisted of 2 306 linguistic facts, i.e. discourse elements in context. From these, 150 fragments containing various discourse elements were then chosen to form a narrow body of research material lasting 40 minutes. <br>The phonetic research consisted of auditory analysis: dividing the fragments of discourses into syntagms; defining the boundaries of syntagms; specifying pitch movement, tone level and type of scale; using perceptual gradations of each prosodic feature, etc. Prosodic marking was carried out in accordance with the method of notation adopted at the Department of English Phonetics at Moscow State Teacher Training University (1997). Scaling enabled the classification and sorting of all the studied elements (discourse elements). The authors used the following types of scales: nominative, ordinal and interval. Structural analysis proved that discourse elements have different structure and may be one-word elements and predicative phrases S+P incorporated into the structure of the academic discourse. All discourse elements can be divided into two large groups – connecting elements (connectors) and pragmatic elements. <br>The results of the research show that the studied elements differ structurally and can perform various functions. The functions of the discourse elements, their structure, intentions of the speaker and also their position in the phrase determine their prosodic features.</div> Yulia Chubarova, Natalia Rezepova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Historical and Symbolic Aspects of Linguistic Representation of the World <div>The article is an attempt to offer a theoretical understanding of the notion of a “Linguistic world-image” (LWI) within symbolic contexts as represented in the current literature, define the symbol’s features, its influence on LWI in historic perspective, and investigate its functioning within idioms or metaphors. We have undertaken the review of previous LWI investigations and, as the methodological basis of our research, we have used ethno-semantic and linguistic-philosophical approaches to language; specifically, the method of multiple etymology, introduced by V. N. Toporov and developed by M.M. Makovsky, which permitted us to identify the correlation of LWI with linguistic signs as a carrier of symbolic meaning. It should be noted that studying symbolic language properties and linguistic signs within the linguistic world-image, which were not taken into account before, is conductive to a more profound comprehension of the correlation between language, culture, and mutual understanding index in the intercultural communication process.<br>The LWI concept is considered as a subjective-objective dynamic multilevel construct, which presents its primary features through a lexical-semantic language system within a world and national culture formed as a result of the reflection of sensorial perception, facts, understanding and estimation of the objective phenomena in national linguistic consciousness, in the experience of correlation of language concepts, images and symbols throughout the cultural historical development of the language. Therefore, two approaches to studying LWI are evident - cognitive and cultural-philosophical - which are not so much conflicting as mutually reinforcing.</div> Margarita Ganyushina Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 Baranova, J., Dingemanse, M. (2016). Reasons for requests. Discourse Studies, 18(6), 641-675 Lilit Beganyan Copyright (c) 2016 National Research University Higher School of Economics Tue, 01 Mar 2016 00:00:00 +0300 ESP in Polish Tertiary Language Courses – in Search of Definition <div>In the Polish educational system it is mainly institutions of higher education that conduct English for Specific Purpose (ESP) courses, partly because of the regulations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education, which stipulate that a B.A. graduate should know a foreign language at least at the B2 level of CEFR and its specialized variety1. This article presents an analysis of Polish ministerial and faculty documents such as ministerial teaching standards and faculty learning outcomes that influence the teaching of ESP at tertiary level in Poland. It also presents an analysis of ESP syllabi from eight higher education institutions published at Internet websites of faculties of economics and management. The aim of the analysis was to see how ministerial and faculty documents define ESP and what type of ESP students of economics and management learn and what are the main course materials for syllabus design for students of economics, management and their various specializations. All the documents and syllabi were subject to qualitative analysis which showed that neither teaching standards nor faculty learning outcomes provide a clear indication of what language for professional or specific purposes is supposed to be. Furthermore, it showed that while teaching students of economics and management, language teachers reach for business English course books which offer a general set of topics and skills, and use one and the same course books with students of different specialties. This shows that the lack of clear guidelines from the Ministry of Science and Higher Education makes it difficult for teachers to provide ESP courses beyond a certain level of generality.</div> Agnieszka Dzięcioł-Pędich Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Graphic and Functional Algorithms of Sequence of Tenses in English Grammar for the Effective Education and Automated Systems of Text Synthesis and Editing <div>The article describes the optimal graphic language of presenting and studying English grammar using information technology. Among the studies on the use of graphics in teaching a&nbsp;foreign language, there are mostly descriptions of static objects. The authors propose to use a&nbsp;universal graphic language for describing processes. The authors suggest theoretical foundations of visualization of the English grammar rules using time-sequential conversion scale in the sequence of tenses transformation. The research question is the method of archiving knowledge of English grammar to simplify and speed up the memorization and to increase the volume of information memorized. To achieve this goal, the authors used a graphic algorithmization of the English grammar and visualization of grammar rules, as well as the comparative monitoring of the knowledge gained. As part of research, a series of experiments on the visualization of the rules of sequence of tenses were conducted in student groups. The research showed that a simple language of symbols facilitates and accelerates the memorization of English grammar. Systematic tabulation of grammar rules, where each verb tense gets its finished graphic image, becomes easy to understand and quick to memorize. The application of the presented approach is the following: effective linguistic education, local and global automatic synthesis system and text editing.</div> Lyudmila Kozlova, Nadejda Trubochkina Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Semantic and Cognitive Structure of Emotion States Love, Lust, Infatuation, Passion <div>Conceptualization of emotions, especially those which are neither universal nor elementary, is a contested area of cognitive linguistic research. The present paper investigated the semantic and conceptual structure of four emotion states of the thematic field ‘romantic relationship’: love, lust, infatuation, and passion. The specific questions asked in the paper are as follows. First, what are the similarities and dissimilarities between these emotion states? Second, in what way does the conceptualization presented in dictionaries depart from conceptualization that emerges through corpus investigation? Finally, which of the conceptual metaphors posited for emotion concepts by G. Lakoff and M. Johnson are most entrenched in the collective and individual consciousness of speakers of English? To answer these questions, the advantages of four methods were tapped into: introspection, definitional analysis, a native speaker survey and corpus study. Findings reveal that dictionary definitions of love, lust, infatuation, and passion offer an impoverished, if credible, insight into the conceptual structure of these emotions. Results are suggestive of some specific conceptual elements which should be taken account of in a classroom setting by language instructors and L2 learners and indicate which appropriate collocations are to be taken heed of by dictionary compilers.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Nataliya Lavrova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 The Backyard of EFL Teaching: Issues Behind L1 Prosodic Interference in Russian English <div>Modern EFL teaching in Russia pays much attention to variations in the cultural schemata represented by students’ L1 and the target language, as well as behavioral patterns of their speakers. However, teaching practitioners scarcely address certain issues of Russian L1 prosodic interference that cause attitudinal confusion on the part of native English speakers. The study explores the wrong pragmatic effects created in English due to the transfer of Russian intonation contours and the reasons behind the failure of Russian EFL teachers to address the issue. Specifically, it investigates English speakers’ negative perceptions of Russian L1 intonation and examines Russian teachers’ practices and beliefs with regard to the place of intonation in a language classroom. The paper draws on findings from recent studies on effects of Russian L1 prosodic features in English and the results obtained from a survey conducted by the author among 29 Russian EFL teachers. The paper argues that whereas L1 intonation interference seriously affects learners’ cultural image, its role in EFL teaching is significantly undervalued as compared to that of grammar and vocabulary. It concludes by suggesting practical ways to facilitate intonation teaching in a Russian EFL classroom.</div> Ekaterina Popkova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 The Development of Stance-taking Strategies in L2 Students’ Academic Essays: the Case of a Content-based Russian-American Teleconference Course <div>Due to internationalization of education, students in the majority of leading Russian universities are increasingly likely to use English as a medium of instruction. At the same time, they are not offered preparatory courses in English academic writing. As a result, students are able to develop their academic writing skills mainly while undertaking content-based courses. Recent research indicates that one of the major concerns for novice writers is to be able to express their stance. The key aim of the study is to show that implementing some methods of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) into a content-based course might improve students’ ability to take a stance in their writing. The paper presents the analysis of 45 essays written in English by L2 novice writers during a teleconference course taught to a group of Russian and American students. The study employs a comparative linguistic analysis of some stance markers (pronoun ‘I’, reporting verbs, epistemic modal and evidential expressions) used in students’ essays written at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end of the course. The results suggest that the students’ ability to take a stance might be developed through the integration into the course of some elements of EAP teaching.</div> Irina Shchemeleva Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Successful ESL Writing for Publication: The Role of Writers’ Autonomy Linguistic Competence and L1/L2 Critical Reading Skills <div>The main aim of the research is to examine professional L1 (Russian)/L2 (English) writing experiences among staff members of one Russian research-intensive university as well as to provide more insights into the universal pedagogies of professional writing. The empirical paper focuses on assessing writers’ ability to reflect upon linguistic competence, independent L1/L2 writing skills and L1/L2 critical reading issues which help multilingual scholars position themselves as successful writers in L1 and L2. Text-based semi-structured interviews aimed at measuring self-assessed overall writers’ autonomy in L1/L2, linguistic competence and critical reading skills in their L1/L2 writing experience were conducted. The key findings include L1/L2 writing features and support the idea that successful professional and autonomous writing seems to be closely related to a set of one’s metalinguistic competences, defined in this paper as a critical reading competence, once a certain level of L2 proficiency has been achieved. The paper concludes with some pedagogical implications in the field of writing for publication.</div> Natalia Smirnova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Implementing Peer Assessment in a Russian University ESP Classroom <div>In order to develop the skills and competences required in a professional environment, university students have to reflect on their own role in the learning process. The traditional methods of assessment do not assess reflective thinking, critical thinking, self-evaluation and peer evaluation. Peer assessment may be a way to solve this problem. In this paper, it is researched how peer assessment could be applied to higher education and the effect of using this form of assessment on the quality of learning. The methodology to investigate the effect of peer assessment as a part of the learning process includes literature observation, case study, developing protocols and marking criteria rules for peer assessment, examples of peer assessment strategies and activities. The results of the research demonstrate that peer assessment methods of either written or oral performance can trigger a deeper involvement of students both in the learning and in the assessment process, keep motivation up and develop some qualities essential for future professional life. Therefor peer assessment could be effectively integrated in the course of ESP at the Moscow Higher School of Economics.</div> Olga Stognieva Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Fostering Positive Transfer through Metalinguistic Awareness: A Case for Parallel Instruction of Synonyms in L1 and L2 <div>Numerous studies on transfer in&nbsp;language learning focus on the nature of transfer, its mechanisms, and its impact on language proficiency and literacy. The&nbsp;majority of implications for teaching methods concern interpretive skills such as reading, whereas the data on effective transfer strategies related to productive skills such as speaking are scarce. This study focuses on speech development based on metacognitive knowledge built into L1 (Russian) as a&nbsp;tool for fostering transfer regarding language universals into L2 (English). An&nbsp;intervention experiment involving elementary school students was based on parallel instruction of synonyms as explicit metalinguistic knowledge. The&nbsp;findings show that, in&nbsp;contrast to the control group, participants from the experiment group displayed a&nbsp;significantly higher gain in&nbsp;skills regarding synonyms in&nbsp;L2, even though metacognitive knowledge of the subject was presented in&nbsp;L1. The&nbsp;results of the study suggest that metalinguistic awareness can facilitate transfer and its instruction can be an&nbsp;effective teaching strategy in&nbsp;speech development in&nbsp;early childhood education.</div> Ekaterina Talalakina Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 External Influences on English: From its Beginnings to the Renaissance. D. Gary Miller. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012. 252 pp. ISBN: 9780199654260 Maria Volkonskaya Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Dec 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Slovak Language of Roma Children: Mother Tongue or Second Language <div>This paper presents a study conducted with 40 Roma children from Slovakia, aged between 4-8 years, who are speakers of an ethnolect learned from their parents, but which in Slovak society is not considered to be a “good Slovak language”. Diagnostic tests in the official Slovak language were administered to the children in order to determine how well they know the complex grammatical categories of official Slovak: wh-questions, wh-complements and passive verbs. One hypothesis raised by the study is that the Roma children follow the normal linguistic development path of other children and, by the age of 5, already know the deep structure of complex sentences in Slovak. The results show that although the Roma children grow up with a particular variety of the Slovak language that is an ethnolect, they are able to comprehend and produce deep linguistic structures of Slovak, which serves for them as a mother tongue.</div> Hristo Kyuchukov Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Sophisticated Thinking: Higher Order Thinking Skills <div>The information-based society determines that the key factor to achieve success is the development of sophisticated thinking. That said, the thinking process cannot be just a&nbsp;mere imitation of cognitive work, since the digital age requires the authentic skills of working with a&nbsp;flow of information that is being constantly updated. <br>This paper deals with the last stage of the study devoted to the development of sophisticated thinking. It&nbsp;focuses on&nbsp;the enhancement of higher order thinking skills. We claim that the cognitive processes should be based on&nbsp;three phases: development of disposition towards both thinking process and processed information; development of lower order thinking skills which serves as&nbsp;an&nbsp;indispensable basis for developing higher order thinking skills; and development of higher order thinking skills. The&nbsp;omission or&nbsp;reordering of any of these phases may result in&nbsp;significant deterioration of the obtained results. The&nbsp;special emphasis is put on&nbsp;the idea that higher order thinking skills are more effectively developed when lower order thinking skills have already been interiorized. Furthermore, the development of disposition is regarded as&nbsp;the cornerstone of the development of sophisticated thinking in&nbsp;general. Also, due to its defining feature of polysemy, a&nbsp;literary text is considered to be the most appropriate basis for enhancing students’ thinking skills. <br>For the purpose of verifying the theoretical ideas, a&nbsp;qualitative study has been conducted. The&nbsp;two groups of students, who participated in&nbsp;the first and second stages (three-month cycle each) of our project, continue to be involved in&nbsp;this one. They are second-year bachelor students of the Higher School of Economics who are studying English as&nbsp;a&nbsp;second language. On&nbsp;the basis of the ideas expressed by&nbsp;B.&nbsp;Bloom about the division between lower and higher order thinking skills and by&nbsp;J.&nbsp;Mezirow about transformative learning we designed tasks to enhance higher order thinking skills. These tasks were related to the short stories written by&nbsp;D. Barthelme and printed as&nbsp;a&nbsp;collection, Sixty Stories. To teach the students of both groups (control and experimental), the text-based approach with special techniques to measure the students’ level of understanding and the ability to apply the given information was used. The&nbsp;results of the experiment indicated that the students of both groups made headway in&nbsp;their application of thinking skills. However, the students of the experimental group demonstrated a&nbsp;more significant shift due to the fact that the development of their disposition towards cognitive processes and processed information had been specifically targeted over the course of the first and second stages of the project. Another important outcome of the study was that the participants’ frame of reference was extended which allows us to speculate that the development of sophisticated thinking may result in&nbsp;the change of a&nbsp;person’s interpretation of socio-cultural situation. Hence, a&nbsp;further in-depth study of the issue should be conducted.</div> Elena Tikhonova, Natalia Kudinova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Research on the Business English Training Model within MBA Program <div>The paper presents a&nbsp;brief summary of the research on&nbsp;the Business English training model within MBA program students.<br>This study is devoted to the problem of developing a&nbsp;professional foreign language communicative competency of MBA program participants. A&nbsp;particular feature of additional MBA qualification is its international status which presupposes that its graduates (mid-level and top managers) should realize their professional tasks in&nbsp;a&nbsp;foreign language.<br>The analysis of literary works follows in&nbsp;order to find out if activity and competency-based approaches are chosen as&nbsp;instructional bases for developing the model of a&nbsp;business foreign language training that can ensure building a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency of the MBA program participants.<br>The result of the study is the model of a&nbsp;business foreign language training that guarantees the development of a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency within the process of obtaining additional professional MBA qualification and that includes the following structural components: learning objective, content, a&nbsp;set of forms of organizing the learning process and technological description of each of the five modules. <br>The next part of the paper suggests the result of the research based on&nbsp;testing of the business foreign language training model that guarantees the development of a&nbsp;professional foreign language communication competency when achieving additional professional MAS qualification including a&nbsp;description of the process and the results of assessing the developed dyadic model.<br>The testing consisted of summative and formative assessment and was carried out in&nbsp;the the Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration in&nbsp;several stages (from 1999 to 2007 and then again from 2010 to 2014). When analyzing the results of assessing the dyadic model both the data obtained in&nbsp;control groups (teaching based on&nbsp;the traditional system) and in&nbsp;experimental groups (teaching based on&nbsp;the developed model) were compared.<br>On the basis of the studies the conclusion was made that business English language training, aimed at&nbsp;the development of professional foreign communicative competence of MBA students, organized in&nbsp;accordance with our didactic model, can achieve the goal of real-verbal communication in&nbsp;English in&nbsp;professional environment (business English should become a&nbsp;tool for solving professional problems), and fully meet the needs of students.</div> Nataliya Yankovskaya, Olga Neklyudova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Lexical Representation of Knowledge about a Human Being in English <div>This paper presents the research in&nbsp;the sphere of lexical representation. On&nbsp;the premise that word meaning offers insights into conceptual knowledge stored in&nbsp;the mind, we have analyzed the semantics of the set of synonyms denoting a&nbsp;human being without reference to gender, age, occupation or&nbsp;peculiarities of personality and without any evaluation of the referent. These lexical items are person, individual, human being, and one of the meanings of man and personality. Use of etymological, dictionary, derivational, collocation, context analysis and conceptual modelling enabled us to build a&nbsp;list of conceptual components that comprise the knowledge about a&nbsp;human being represented in&nbsp;the English language. To date, the conceptual models used to visualize knowledge do not seem applicable to visualizing knowledge about a&nbsp;human being; therefore, we could only formulate the main features that are characteristic of this knowledge in&nbsp;the English world-view.</div> Tatiana Golechkova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Verbal Representation of Ethnic Stereotypes about the Dutch in English (an Insight into Cross-Cultural Perception via the Language) <div>The paper presents a brief summary of the multi-level interdisciplinary research on Englishmen’s ethnic stereotypes about the Dutch and the ways they manifest themselves in the English language. Unconventionally, the national stereotype is investigated as a subject of Cognitive Linguistics. As a result, the term “conceptual model” is proposed as an equivalent to “conceptual metaphor”, and two conceptual models verbally represented by the ethnonym “Dutch” and phraseological units with this component are described. A literature review examines if the identified conceptual models are supported in literary discourse, then the usage of the key lexis is analyzed meticulously for the same purpose. The last part of the paper suggests the results of the experiment held to verify if the stereotypical perceptions of the Dutch are maintained by people in contemporary Great Britain. The results indicate that language plays a significant role in stereotype formation and maintenance.</div> Elena Golubovskaya Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Cognitive Aspect of Intercultural Communication <div>The research of cognitive aspects of intercultural communication is aimed to explore national linguistic consciousness, its peculiarities in order to determine the universal basics which make the intercultural communication possible while preserving national cultural identity and language diversity. This scientific analysis can become a background for developing skills of comprehending foreign speech and providing learning and teaching paths towards communication competence in accordance with Common European Framework of References for Languages. The analysis of texts has shown a fast-growing process of penetration of anglicisms into national languages which leads to obvious structural changes in the national languages. The effects of this interference on cognitive process should be studied and discussed as there is a strong awareness that substituting foreign verbal means for the native ones leads to weakening the immunity of the national language consciousness in general and undermines the national traditions of verbal communication approved and used by a national community. The linguistic analysis of professional activities of interpreters in the process of consecutive translation, students’ experimental with work with texts and material for comprehension and translation in class, survey of psychological tests on perception mechanism made it possible to describe a cognitive scheme of human reflection and interpretation of the real world and its developments which make up the contents of perceived texts during listening and reading. The concept of a subject whose activities are performed at a certain place at a certain time can be given the status of a three-coordinate (subject, place, time) cognitive scheme. The didactic exploitation of this cognitive scheme is seen in teaching students to identify these coordinates in the process of comprehending speech or text and thus to perceive its message by structuring and organizing the information. It is thought to be an effective method of developing productive communication skills as well as to be a reliable scientific basis to create and exploit learning and teaching techniques of handling and integrating information, including that of taking notes and organizing received facts in the process of consecutive translation.</div> Svetlana Kurbakova Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Postmodern Discourse and its Semiosis <div>Symbolic representation is a&nbsp;specific, uniquely human form of objectification of the real world, a&nbsp;powerful means of communication activity of its reflectivity. Understanding of the phenomenon of sign representation, its modeling and the definition of the sign and its meaning depends on&nbsp;the sign language system and aspects of the language to be interpreted&nbsp;– dynamic or&nbsp;statistical, functional or&nbsp;structural aspects are taken as&nbsp;a&nbsp;basis. This article is an&nbsp;attempt to review the main components of the sign of the postmodern discourse.<br>It&nbsp;should be noted that in&nbsp;modern science there is a&nbsp;tendency to revise the linguistic nature of the sign. Among all areas of linguistics there is a&nbsp;domination of the theoretical reflection, according to which all phenomena are regarded as&nbsp;the implementation of language text, discourse, narrative. Therefore, the full range of human culture is the sum of texts of the intertextuality. Consciousness also appears in&nbsp;the form of text that can be read by&nbsp;the relevant rules of grammar, or, by&nbsp;using the decryption of codes. Foreign linguists developed a&nbsp;new direction in&nbsp;science: the main emphasis is placed on&nbsp;the special role of the interpretation procedures and the importance of reading both cognitive and communicative signs, because any schematization of reality is a&nbsp;sign. The&nbsp;analysis of postmodern texts suggests that thought can not be just interpreted, but also disinterpreted in&nbsp;postmodern discourse. In&nbsp;these texts, the notion of the sign takes on&nbsp;a&nbsp;different, broader meaning than that of word mark. One of the important issues of semiotic analysis of postmodern discourse is to examine and identify the codes that exist to decipher all kinds of signs.<br>Thus, in&nbsp;the context of our research the quite relevant question is to define the temporal signs (linguistic or&nbsp;non-linguistic) to be expressed in&nbsp;the postmodern discourse. As&nbsp;is known, the category of ‘time’ appears as&nbsp;a&nbsp;symbol of life / death, meaning as&nbsp;a&nbsp;cultural reality, and so forth. In&nbsp;modern linguistics it&nbsp;is assumed that postmodern text is regulated by&nbsp;a&nbsp;set of codes: the linguistic code of natural language, the literary code that defines the connectivity of the text, the genre code, and meta-language of a&nbsp;writer. In&nbsp;our view, the essence of postmodern discourse is a&nbsp;combination of mosaic codes, which include the following types of: linguistic, cultural, semiological, interactive, and metatextual codes.</div> Kseniya Hakobyan, Jasmina Šuler-Galos Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Barack Obama and Modern American Caricature Anatoly Chudinov, Svetlana Makeeva Copyright (c) Tue, 01 Sep 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Olympiad in the English Language as a Form of Alternative Language Assessment <div>Although a variety of the English language written olympiads (language competitions) exist, fairly little is known about how they are different from traditional forms of language assessment. &nbsp;In Russia, olympiads in the English language are now gaining currency because they provide an opportunity to reveal creative thinking and intellectual abilities of pupils. &nbsp;The present study examined major differences between language olympiads and traditional forms of language assessment. &nbsp;A comparison of five main olympiads in the English language in terms of their levels, assessed skills and task types is made and their distinctive features are outlined. &nbsp;The results of a testing of a new written olympiad of the Higher School of Economics “Vysshaya proba” (Highest Degree) in the English language are analyzed. &nbsp;A set of test items was developed for 120 secondary school pupils in Moscow to find out whether they can easily cope with non-traditional form of assessment, which is language olympiad. &nbsp;The results indicate that language competition as a form of alternative assessment may be introduced at schools to encourage better learning.</div> Evgeniya Bolshakova Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Prosodic Variation in Academic Public Presentations <div>The&nbsp;article reports on&nbsp;a&nbsp;study of&nbsp;the prosodic characteristics of&nbsp;academic public presentations. Prosodic variation is analysed with regard to&nbsp;the social and cultural context which is significant for&nbsp;the adequate description of&nbsp;discourse prosody. The&nbsp;paper draws on&nbsp;the&nbsp;findings made in&nbsp;the course of&nbsp;the analysis (auditory and acoustic) of&nbsp;presentations delivered by British lecturers. The&nbsp;article contains an&nbsp;overview of&nbsp;contextual factors and discourse strategies used in&nbsp;academic presentations. Special focus is given to&nbsp;prosodic variations in&nbsp;spoken discourse determined by the&nbsp;extralinguistic context. The&nbsp;author argues that that the&nbsp;choice of&nbsp;prosodic means depends on&nbsp;a&nbsp;variety of&nbsp;contextual parameters: speaker-audience relationships (reflected in&nbsp;the tenor of&nbsp;discourse), the&nbsp;speaker’s rhetorical competence, method of&nbsp;delivery, rhetorical tradition and others. The&nbsp;observations made in&nbsp;the paper may be useful to&nbsp;develop expertise in&nbsp;the delivery of&nbsp;academic public presentations which is an&nbsp;important aspect of&nbsp;EFL teachers’ professional training.</div> Elena Freydina Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Professional Development, Motivation, and Community in a Moscow In-service Recertification Course <div>Between September 2010 and May 2013, the author conducted six cycles of an 8-week recertification course for in-service English teachers in Moscow, Russia. The&nbsp;course syllabus was built on developing a&nbsp;community of practice, as a&nbsp;motivating factor in teacher development. The&nbsp;community was fostered both during in-person meeting time and online participant interaction. While the participants’ objectives were varied, the overarching goal of the course&nbsp;– beyond knowledge and skill building&nbsp;– was to engender a&nbsp;sense of ownership among the participants, both of the course itself and of their own continuing professional development. This was realized in both small incremental ways, such as launching a&nbsp;new discussion online, and in bolder, farther-reaching ways, such as organizing a&nbsp;mini-conference for a&nbsp;local school district.</div> <div>&nbsp;</div> Tony Hull Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Teachers’ Written Feedback: Does the Delivery Method Matter? <div>Responding to student writing, which is a&nbsp;widely researched area, is still one of the most challenging parts of the EAP (English for Academic Purposes) teacher’s job. Little attention has been given to analyzing the role of systematic feedback on students’ improvement of writing at the university. The&nbsp;paper reports on the results of a&nbsp;small-scale action research conducted among first-year undergraduate students, which explored the effect of record sheets, used as a&nbsp;tool to track student progress in writing argumentative essays. Apart from student portfolios and record sheets, the 8-week study used other methods of data collection that included recorded semi-structured interviews and a&nbsp;survey. Findings show that providing consistently structured (praise and criticism) selective (global and local) feedback to students has a&nbsp;positive effect both on the teacher and on student perception of feedback and, generally, their achievements in developing writing skills. The&nbsp;study may motivate EAP practitioners to change their current classroom practices and seek more effective ways of responding to student writing.</div> Natalia Koliadina Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Reading Accuracy in EFL Students with a Transparent L1 Background – a Case Study from Poland <div>Research indicates that L2&nbsp;reading competence is influenced by L1&nbsp;reading ability, L2&nbsp;proficiency, and L2&nbsp;decoding competence. The&nbsp;present study investigates the&nbsp;significance of&nbsp;two variables, regularity and frequency, in&nbsp;relation to&nbsp;English as a&nbsp;Foreign Language (EFL) reading accuracy in&nbsp;students with a&nbsp;transparent L1. Fifteen 6th&nbsp;grade students in&nbsp;their sixth year of&nbsp;regular instruction in&nbsp;English took part in&nbsp;this study. Their mother tongue is Polish whereas English is their foreign language; thus, their language competence in&nbsp;L1&nbsp;and L2&nbsp;differs substantially. The&nbsp;research design followed Glusko (1979), Plaut (1996), and Wang and Koda (2007). There are four sets of&nbsp;real words. Two features of&nbsp;real words are manipulated for&nbsp;regularity and frequency. The&nbsp;study reveals that both conditions of&nbsp;script, regularity and transparency, affect reading accuracy in&nbsp;EFL students. However, the&nbsp;dimension of&nbsp;regularity is a&nbsp;stronger predicator of&nbsp;accuracy than the&nbsp;frequency with which the&nbsp;students encounter a&nbsp;word. From the&nbsp;pedagogical perspective, the&nbsp;collected data supports the&nbsp;use of&nbsp;structured reading instructions in&nbsp;the EFL classroom in&nbsp;order to&nbsp;restrain negative transfer of&nbsp;L1 to&nbsp;L2&nbsp;reading strategies.</div> Monika Łodej Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 English Phraseology: Integration with Terminology Science <div>The&nbsp;article is devoted to the study of English semi-idioms (a term suggested by A. Kunin), units with both terminological and metaphorical meanings. These units were studied from different angles but here their dual nature is viewed through the possibility of providing an experiment. The&nbsp;paper shows how a&nbsp;linguistic experiment can reveal not only the meaning of some unit, but the peoples’ attitude towards the use of these phrases, their individual level of understanding, interpreting and realising. As cognition is very important in the understanding of semantics, as well as a&nbsp;new perspective in the study of phraseology, a&nbsp;synergetic approach as well as a&nbsp;cognitive one is becoming one of the ways to scrutinising the nature of terminological phraseological units. The&nbsp;paper focuses on the possible ways of showing that terms can develop metaphorical meanings though sometimes people have no ideas of the etymology of some units. An&nbsp;experiment to show the dual nature of such units as terminological phraseologisms was provided on the bases of a&nbsp;specially created questionnaire. The&nbsp;result of the experiment proved that some terms can acquire new metaphorical meanings and function in the language and speech as phraseological units. The&nbsp;results of the experiment as well as various references to the matter of the study&nbsp;– semi-idioms&nbsp;– may turn to be useful in language studies, learning English as a&nbsp;second language, investigating English Terminology and Phraseology.</div> Elena Nikulina Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Teacher Corrective Oral Feedback in the Classroom <div>The&nbsp;article reports on a&nbsp;study of teacher corrective oral feedback in Iris Becker Elementary School, a&nbsp;public school serving pupils from kindergarten-5th grade in Dearborn, Michigan. Some researchers claim that teacher corrective oral feedback is beneficial to L2&nbsp;learning while others discard its merit. This study is an attempt to explore this topic further with young learners. The&nbsp;method used in the study included one classroom observation. The&nbsp;participants included one mainstream classroom teacher and about 25&nbsp;students. The&nbsp;results show high teacher corrective oral feedback.</div> Nasy Inthisone Pfanner Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 The Last Word on Words. Lectures on English Lexicology. Morozova Nataliya. Moscow: University book, 2010. 178 p. ISBN 978-5-91304-152-4 Olga Chupryna Copyright (c) Mon, 01 Jun 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Self-Regulation Skills: Several Ways of Helping Students Develop Self-Regulated Learning <div>Empirical research supports the long held assumption that self-control, self-esteem, and motivational orientations of adult language learners are important factors in&nbsp;their language learning behavior. However, precisely these variables influence the language learning process has yet to be investigated. The goal of this paper is to examine the role of how self-control, self-esteem and motivational orientations influence the English language learning process. Recent methodological advances and various theoretical frameworks that have guided the present research are considered in&nbsp;this paper. A special “bidirectional course” turning on&nbsp;teacher-learner interaction was designed - a&nbsp;communicative course which promoted learner autonomy. The results indicate that active involvement in&nbsp;learning, monitoring motivation, self-control and self–esteem are positively related to learning outcomes, demonstrating that the acquisition of self-regulation skills have a&nbsp;positive impact on&nbsp;the learning of English.</div> Tatiana Baranovskaya Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 New approaches to teacher development in an EAP context <div>Professional development is an&nbsp;important part of&nbsp;teachers’ professional lives. It involves improvement of&nbsp;individual skills, personal performance, chances of&nbsp;obtaining a&nbsp;good job, and career advancement. The&nbsp;article reports on&nbsp;teacher professional development of&nbsp;English language teachers. It, first, explains the&nbsp;need for&nbsp;teacher training seminars and an&nbsp;increased demand for&nbsp;new IELTS exam teaching skills based on&nbsp;a study conducted by the&nbsp;author; then it outlines standards for&nbsp;English teachers and, finally, it looks at&nbsp;various areas of&nbsp;teacher development at&nbsp;the tertiary level, such as teaching portfolio, collaboration, teacher study groups, workshops, and research seminars. Findings reveal that teachers lack experience of&nbsp;teaching for&nbsp;IELTS and its assessment; they have also difficulties in&nbsp;teaching academic style to&nbsp;students and explaining the&nbsp;text structure for&nbsp;two IELTS essays; the&nbsp;format of&nbsp;the speaking part is also a&nbsp;problem with several teachers. These results indicate that there is a&nbsp;need for&nbsp;teacher training seminars as the&nbsp;first step in&nbsp;teacher development and a&nbsp;demand for&nbsp;continuous professional development in&nbsp;a particular university context.</div> Elena Velikaya Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Investigating the Gap between L2 Grammar Textbooks and Authentic Speech: Corpus-Based Comparisons of Reported Speech <div>Corpus Linguistics (CL) has made significant inroads into the field of second language acquisition (SLA) and pedagogy. As more corpora have become available, researchers and teachers alike have begun to realize the importance of empirically testing ideas that have long been taken for granted and accepted as fact. This is especially true for grammar textbooks written for second language (L2) learners. Do the textbooks that are being used reflect real world grammatical usage? The current study is the first of two in&nbsp;which three corpora were used to examine real world usage of reported speech (RS) as compared to typical presentations of RS in&nbsp;popular L2 grammar U.S. textbooks as they existed in&nbsp;and up to the year 2007. Results show that indirect reported speech (IRS), direct reported speech (DRS) and alternative forms of RS constructions in&nbsp;combination are not only frequent in&nbsp;spoken English but also dependent on&nbsp;register and context. Further, simplifying RS explanations in&nbsp;terms of backshifing with the use of a&nbsp;past tense main reporting verb may be providing inaccurate information to L2 learners of American English. Results generally support, with some exceptions, the findings in&nbsp;previous studies which employed corpus-based analysis to study the relevance of EFL/ESL textbooks (Al-Wossabi, 2014; Barbieri &amp; Eckhardt, 2007; Khojasteh &amp;Shakrpour, 2014; Šegedin, 2008). A&nbsp;forthcoming study will examine new corpora and revised textbooks to measure the degree of change that has occurred since 2007, thereby seeking to replicate the results of a&nbsp;more general review on&nbsp;the same topic done by Khojasteh and Shakrpour (2014).</div> Kevin Cancellaro Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 EST for EMI: A Problem-Based Learning Approach to Domain-Specific Fluency <div>An English for Science and Technology (EST) course is offered as a&nbsp;potential bridge to English as a&nbsp;Medium of Instruction (EMI) in&nbsp;the sciences. Consisting of four modules, each organized around a&nbsp;“big problem” in&nbsp;science or technology, the course challenges students to collectively arrive at solutions through critical and creative thinking that ultimately finds expression in&nbsp;three modalities: verbal (e.g., expert panel discussions, debates) graphic (e.g., problem statements, action plans), and visual-spatial (e.g., graphs, models). It is suggested that Problem-Based Learning (PBL) approaches to language learning&nbsp;– especially ones propelled by critical thinking frameworks (e.g., SPRE)&nbsp;– not only ease the transition to science courses where English is the medium of instruction but promote the acquisition of general competencies thought vital to 21st century success.</div> Sharon Hannigan Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Looking for an EIL Pronunciation Standard: A Literature Review and Classroom Experience from the Russian L1 Perspective <div>This article concerns itself with the identification of language units essential to the intelligibility of communication of non-native English speakers (NNESs) in&nbsp;international settings, or English as an international language (EIL) communication. It focuses on&nbsp;a&nbsp;seemingly narrow but nevertheless significant area of speech production and reception&nbsp;– pronunciation. Based on&nbsp;the works of pronunciation scholars and classroom experience, we outline areas of concern for NNES training and suggest pronunciation foci for Russian learners of English as a&nbsp;foreign language (EFL). We specifically examine areas where academic discourse goals overlap with the goals of developing NNES pronunciation fluency and rhetorical competence, targeting those features that, if improved upon, would make NNES speech sound intelligible, educated and cultured as the academic environment requires. We consider these features in&nbsp;view of their importance for two emerging pedagogical domains: English as a&nbsp;lingua franca (ELF) and English as a&nbsp;medium of instruction (EMI), particularly taking into account their approach to NNESs’ identity and attitude.</div> Tatiana Skopintseva Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Language, Task and Situation: Authenticity in the Classroom <div>There is debate on&nbsp;the use of authenticity in&nbsp;language classrooms in&nbsp;terms of language, task, and situation. “Authenticity of language” spans a&nbsp;continuum that begins with inauthentic materials&nbsp;– wholly created by a&nbsp;teacher or materials developer&nbsp;– to constructed materials, modified from real-world materials, to those materials created for non-pedagogical L1 purposes. “Authenticity of task” questions whether students are engaging with language materials in&nbsp;a&nbsp;way that would appear natural outside the classroom. “Authenticity of situation” refers to non-classroom contexts. Complicating ideas of authenticity is the question of materials selection. This paper explores teachers’ awareness of authenticity and suggests ways to incorporate authentic language, tasks, and situations to enhance classroom learning.</div> Ken Beatty Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 On the Conceptual Basis of the English Adjectival Category <div>The paper focuses on&nbsp;the cognitive foundation of English adjectives that denote mental characteristics of human beings. Several cognitive models have been advanced in&nbsp;an attempt to account for the semantic structure underlying the lexical category in&nbsp;question. After reviewing these models, a&nbsp;method for determining which of them most accurately captures the “cognitive reality” of English adjectival “deep structure” is proposed. The paper concludes with arguments for the inclusion of additional “motion attributes” to Lakoff’s ICM (1987), namely, “guide’s support” and “speed”.</div> Marina Antonova Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Russian Students’ Associative View of Germans <div>The article investigates semantic forms of the association field ‘German’ in&nbsp;the linguistic consciousness of Russian students. It systematises Russian stereotypical ideas of Germans through a&nbsp;word association experiment. Five thematic areas of the semantic form ‘German’ are described. Both direct (from stimulus to response) and inverse (from response to stimulus) test items probing the associative field ‘German’ were analysed. The results indicate how stable stereotypical ideas of Germans are in&nbsp;the consciousness of today’s Russian students.</div> Vasiliy Glushak Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300 Current Trends in the Development of Psycholinguistics in Russia Valreia Aivazova Copyright (c) Sun, 01 Mar 2015 00:00:00 +0300