Reference List


Only scientific materials should be included into Reference list.

For other sources use Footnotes.

Order

Alphabetical letter by letter, by surname of first author followed by initials.

References by the same single author are ordered by date, from oldest to most recent.

References by more than one author with the same first author are ordered after all references by the first author alone, by surname of second author, or if they are the same, the third author, and so on.

References by the same author with the same date are arranged alphabetically by title excluding 'A' or 'The'. Put a lower-case letter after the year:

Aroud, J. (2015a).
Aroud, J. (2015b).

For organizations or groups, alphabetize by the first significant word of their name.

Form of author name

Use the authors' surnames and initials unless you have two authors with the same surname and initial, in which case the full name can be given:

Aroud, J. [Jane]. (2016).
Aroud, J. [Joel]. (2016).

Book

For books, no longer list the publication location.

If a book has a DOI assigned to it, add it to the end of the reference. DOIs are formatted the same as URLs. The label “DOI:” is no longer necessary

Samanez-Larkin, G. R. (Ed.). (2019). The aging brain: Functional adaptation across adulthood. American Psychological Association. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

One author

Author, A. A. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. Clarendon Press.

Two authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. Routledge.

Three authors

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. Allyn & Bacon.

More authors

Include all names up to 20. For works with more than 20 authors, list the first 19, insert an ellipsis point, and then list the last author's name.

Smith, J., Jones, B. E., Brown, K. E., Doe, J., Chan, L., Garcia, S. M., White, C-G., Fernández, J., Ahmed, A. J., Zhào, L., Cohen, D., Watanabe, K., Kim, K., Del Rosario, J., Yilmaz, P. K., Nguyễn, T., Wilson, T. H., Wang, W., Kahale, A. ... Zhang, Z. Z. (2019). Book title: And subtitle. Allyn & Bacon.

Organization as author

American Psychological Association. (2003). Book title: And subtitle. Routledge.

No author

Merriam Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Merriam-Webster.

Chapter

Author, A. A. (2019). Chapter title. In K. L. Editor (Ed.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 130-216). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

Author, A. A. (2020). Chapter title. In J. J. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

Author, A. A. (2012). Chapter title. In J. J. Editor, P. P. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Routledge. https://doi.org/10.1037/0000143-000

Edited

Editor, J. J. (Ed.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Routledge.

Editor, J. J., Editor, A. A., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2020). Book title: And subtitle. Routledge.

Edition

Author, A. A. (2012). Book title: And subtitle (4th ed.). Routledge.

Translated

Author, J. J. (2012). Book title: And subtitle (L. Khan, Trans.). Routledge.

Not in English

If the original version of a book in a language other than English is used as a source, reference the original version, but give in brackets an English translation of the title after the original title.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book [Title translated into English]. Publisher.

Bennahmiasm, J.-L., & Roche, A. (1992). Des verts de toutes les couleurs: Histoire et sociologie du mouvement ecolo [Greens of all colours: history and sociology of the ecology movement]. Albin Michel.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de I'idee de hasard chez I'enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Presses Universitaires de France.

If your source is written in a language that does not use Latin characters (a, b, c, etc.), such as Russian, it is recommended that you transliterate the details.

Nabokov, V. (1999). Kommentarii k 'Evgeniiu Oneginu' Aleksandra Pushkina [A commentary on Alexander Pushkin's 'Eugene Onegin']. NPK.

eBook

eBooks should be cited exactly as print books. For ebooks, the format, platform, or device (e.g. Kindle) is no longer included in the reference, and the publisher is included.

Keating, D. P. (Ed.). (2010). Nature and nurture in early child development. Cambridge University Press.

Brück, M. (2009). Women in early British and Irish astronomy: Stars and satellites. Springer Nature. https:/doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-2473-2

Sacred texts

Sacred texts should now be included in the references list (the 6th edition only required an in-text citation).

The Bhagavad Gita. (E. Easwaran, Trans.; 2nd ed.). (2007). The Blue Mountain Center of Meditation.

King James Bible. (2017). King James Bible Online. https://www.kingjamesbibleonline.org/ (Original work published 1769)

Publisher

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press'. If two or more publishers are given, give listed first. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Multivolume works

Multiple volumes from a multi-volume work

Levison, D., & Ember, M. (Eds). (1996). Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). Henry Holt.

Use Vol. for a single volume and Vols, for multiple volumes.

In text, use (Levison & Ember, 1996).

A single volume from a multi-volume work

Nash, M. (1993). Malay. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of world cultures (Vol. 5, pp. 174-176). G.K. Hall.

In text, use (Nash, 1993).

Journal

If a journal article does not have a DOI, you may end the citation after the page numbers. There is no longer a requirement to include the URL of the journal's homepage. However, if an article is open access, you may choose to link directly to the article's full text.

One author

Author, A. A. (year). Title of the article. Name of the Periodical, volume(issue), #-#. https://doi.org/xxxx

Cheng, L., Wu, Y., & Liu, X. (2015). Chinese university students’ perceptions of assessment tasks and classroom assessment environment. Language Testing in Asia, 5(13), 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40468-015-0020-6

Page numbers should always be provided. If an article has an article number, use that in place of the page numbers.

Derry, K. (2018). Myth and monstrosity: Teaching indigenous films. Journal of Religion & Film, 22(3), Article 7. https://digitalcommons.unomaha.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2013&context=jrf

Two authors

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. https://doi.org/xxxx

More authors

Include all names up to 20. If there are more than 20 authors, list the first 19 with an ellipsis before the last.

Author, M., Author, B., Author, E., Author, G., Author, D., Author, R., ... Author, P. (2001). Title of article: And subtitle. Title of Journal, 2(3), 12-23. https://doi.org/xxxx

Organization as author

American Psychological Association. (2003). Title of article: And subtitle. Title of Journal, 2(3), 12-23. https://doi.org/xxxx

Not in English

Titles not in English must be translated into English and put in square brackets.

Author, M. (2000). Title in German [Title in English]. Journal in German, 21(5), 208-217. https://doi.org/xxxx

Author, P. (2000). Title in French [Title in English]. Journal in French, 21(5), 208-217. https://doi.org/xxxx

Conference

Proceedings

To cite published proceedings from a book, use book format or chapter format. To cite regularly published proceedings, use journal

Paper

Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Poster

Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of poster. Poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.

Thesis

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Internet

Website

When citing an entire website, it is sufficient just to give the address of the site in the text. The BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk).

Web page

If the format is out of the ordinary (e.g. lecture notes), add a description in brackets.

Author, A. (2011). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

Newspaper or magazine

URLs are no longer preceded by “Retrieved from,” unless a retrieval date is needed. The website name is included (unless it’s the same as the author), and web page titles are italicized

Author, A. (2012, January 12). Title of article. The Sunday Times, p. 1.

Walker, A. (2019, November 14). Germany avoids recession but growth remains weak. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-50419127

Reports

May or may not be peer-reviewed; may or may not be published. Format as a book reference.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Working paper

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http: //www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Discussion paper

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http: //www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Personal communication

Personal communication includes letters, emails, memos, messages from discussion groups and electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews. Cite these only in the text. Include references for archived material only.

Other reference types

Patent

Cho, S. T. (2005). U.S. Patent No. 6,980,855. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

Map

London Mapping Co. (Cartographer). (1960). Street map. [Map]. Retrieved from http://www.londonmapping.co.uk/maps/xxxxx.pdf

Act

Mental Health Systems Act, 41 U.S.C. § 9403 (1988).

Audio and visual media

Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.

Author, A. (Producer). (2009, December 2). Title of

podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http: //www. xxxxx. co m

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Smith, A. (Writer), & Miller, R. (Director). (1989). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Green (Executive Producer), Series. New York, NY: WNET.

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York, NY: WNET.

Database

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, A. A. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal Title, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from the ARTICLES database.

Data set

Author. (2011). National Statistics Office monthly means and other derived variables [Data set]. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from http://www.xxxxx.com

If the dataset is updated regularly, use the year of retrieval in the reference, and using the retrieval date is also recommended.

Computer program

Rightsholder, A. A. (2010). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.

Name of software (Version Number) [Computer software]. Location: Publisher.

If the program can be downloaded or ordered from a website, give this information in place of the publication information.