Reference List

Only scientific materials should be included into Reference list.

For other sources use Footnotes.

Order Alphabetical letter by letter, by surname of first author followed by initials.

References by the same single author are ordered by date, from oldest to most recent.

References by more than one author with the same first author are ordered after all references by the first author alone, by surname of second author, or if they are the same, the third author, and so on.

References by the same author with the same date are arranged alphabetically by title excluding 'A' or 'The', unless they are parts of a series, in which case order them by part number. Put a lower-case letter after the year: Aroud, J. (2015a). Aroud, J. (2015b).

For organizations or groups, alphabetize by the first significant word of their name.

If there is no author, put the title in the author position and alphabetize by the first significant word.

Form of author name Use the authors' surnames and initials unless you have two authors with the same surname and initial, in which case the full name can be given:

Aroud, J. [Jane]. (2016).

Aroud, J. [Joel]. (2016).

If a first name includes a hyphen, add a full stop (period) after each letter: Jones, J.-P.

Book
Publisher Give the name and location of the publisher (city and state or, outside the United States, city and country) for books, reports, brochures, and other nonperiodical publications.

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press' and use only the surname for publishing houses that are named after persons (e.g., Erlbaum, not Lawrence ErlbaumWiley, not John Wiley). The names of universities, associations, and so forth are given in full.

If two or more publishers are given, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher's home office.

There is one exception to this rule: If the publisher is a university whose name includes the name of the state, don’t repeat the state in the publisher location.

If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the state in the publisher location:

Santa Cruz, CA: University of California Press

Lincoln, MI: University of Nebraska Press
USA states abbreviations AK
AL 
AR 
AZ 
CA 
CO 
CT 
DE 
FL 
GA 
HI 
IA 
ID 
IL 
IN 
KS 
KY 
LA 
MA 
MD 
ME 
MI 
MN 
MO 
MS 
MT 
Alaska
Alabama
Arkansas
Arizona
California
Colorado
Connecticut
Delaware
Florida
Georgia
Hawaii
Iowa
Idaho
Illinois
Indiana
Kansas
Kentucky 
Louisiana
Massachusetts
Maryland
Maine
Michigan
Minnesota
Missouri
Mississippi
Montana
NC
ND 
NE 
NH 
NJ 
NM 
NV 
NY 
OH 
OK 
OR 
PA 
RI 
SC 
SD 
TN 
TX 
UT 
VA 
VT 
WA 
WI 
WV 
WY 
DC 
North Carolina
North Dakota
Nebraska
New Hampshire
New Jersey
New Mexico
Nevada
New York
Ohio
Oklahoma
Oregon
Pennsylvania
Rhode Island
South Carolina
South Dakota
Tennessee
Texas
Utah
Virginia
Vermont
Washington
Wisconsin
West Virginia
Wyoming
District of Columbia
One author Author, A. A. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. London, UK: Clarendon Press.
Two authors Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2016). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Three authors Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2016). This is a book title: And subtitle. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
More authors Include all names up to seven. If there are more than seven authors, list the first six with an ellipsis before the last.

Author, A., Author, B., Author, C., Author, D., Author, E., Author, F., ... Author, K. (2016).

Organization as author American Psychological Association. (2003). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

If the publisher is the same as the author, then use the word Author in place of the publisher name not to duplicate the information.

American Psychological Association. (2009). Crediting sources: Citing references in text. Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed., pp. 177 - 192). Washington, D.C.: Author.
No author Merriam Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.). (1993). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster.
Chapter Author, A. A. (2013). Chapter title. In K. L. Editor (Ed.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 130-216). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Author, A. A. (2012). This is a chapter. In J. J. Editor & B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Author, A. A. (2012). This is a chapter. In J. J. Editor, P. P. Editor &     B. B. Editor (Eds.), Book title: And subtitle (pp. 300-316). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Edited Editor, J. J. (Ed.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Editor, J. J., Editor, A. A., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2012). Book title: And subtitle. Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Editor, J. J., & Editor, P. P. (Eds.). (2012). Edited online book: And subtitle. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx.xx
Edition Author, A. A. (2012). Book title: And subtitle (4th ed.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.
Translated Author, J. J. (2012). Book title: And subtitle. (L. Khan, Trans.). Abingdon, UK: Routledge.

Piaget, J. (1969). The psychology of the child (H. Weaver, Trans.). New York, NY: Basic Books

Not in English If the original version of a book in a language other than English is used as a source, reference the original version, but give in brackets an English translation of the title after the original title.

Author, Initials. (year). Title of book (Edition if later than first e.g. 3rd ed.) [Title translated into English]. Place of publication, Country / State: Publisher

Bennahmiasm, J.-L., & Roche, A. (1992). Des verts de toutes les couleurs: Histoire et sociologie du mouvement ecolo [Greens of all colours: History and sociology of the ecology movement]. Paris, France: Albin Michel.

Piaget, J., & Inhelder, B. (1951). La genese de I'idee de hasard chez I'enfant [The origin of the idea of chance in the child]. Paris, France: Presses Universitaires de France.

If your source is written in a language that does not use Latin characters (a, b, c, etc.), such as Russian, it is recommended (though not prescribed by the APA protocol) that you transliterate the details. So a book whose title is in Russian (i.e. written using Cyrillic characters), e.g. should be referenced like this:

Nabokov, V. (1999). Kommentarii k ‘Evgeniiu Oneginu’ Aleksandra Pushkina [A commentary on Alexander Pushkin’s ‘Eugene Onegin’]. Moscow, Russia: NPK.
Online Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work: Subtitle [Adobe Digital Editions version]. Retrieved from http://www.xxxx.xx
Place of publication Always list the city, and include the two-letter state abbreviation for US publishers. There is no need to include the country name:

New York, NY: McGraw-Hill

Washington, DC: Author

Newbury Park, CA: Sage

Pretoria: Unisa

Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press

Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press

Abingdon: Routledge
Publisher If the publisher is a university and the name of the state is included in the name of the university, do not repeat the state in the publisher location:

Santa Cruz: University of California Press

Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press'. If two or more publishers are given, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher's home office. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.

Give the name in as brief a form as possible. Omit terms such as 'Publishers', 'Co.', 'Inc.', but retain the words 'Books' and 'Press'. If two or more publishers are given, give the location listed first or the location of the publisher's home office. When the author and publisher are identical, use the word Author as the name of the publisher.
Multiple Publisher Locations You only need to list one Publisher Location. List the first Location provided or the Location of the main office.
Multivolume works
Multiple volumes from a multi-volume work Levison, D., & Ember, M. (Eds). (1996). Encyclopedia of cultural anthropology (Vols. 1-4). New York, NY: Henry Holt.

Use Vol. for a single volume and Vols, for multiple volumes.

In text, use (Levison & Ember, 1996).

A single volume from a multi-volume work Nash, M. (1993). Malay. In P. Hockings (Ed.), Encyclopedia of world cultures (Vol. 5, pp. 174-176). New York, NY: G.K. Hall.

In text, use (Nash, 1993).

Journal
One author Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(4), 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Provide the issue number ONLY if each issue of the journal begins on page 1. In such cases it goes in parentheses:

Journal, 8(1), pp-pp. Page numbers should always be provided.

If there is no doi and the reference was retrieved from an online database, give the database name and accession number or the database URL (no retrieval date is needed):

Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(4), 123-231. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx

If there is no DOI and the reference was retrieved from a journal homepage, give the full URL or site's homepage URL:

Author, A. A. (2011). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(4), 123-231. Retrieved from http://www.xxxxx
Two authors Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2004). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(4), 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Three authors Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (1987). Title of article. Title of Journal, 22(4), 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
More authors Include all names up to seven. If there are more than seven authors, list the first six with an ellipsis before the last.

Author, M., Author, B., Author, E., Author, G., Author, D., Author, R., ... Author, P. (2001).

Organization as author American Psychological Association. (2003). Title of article: And subtitle. Title of Journal, 2, 12-23. doi: xx.xxxxxxxxxx
No author Editorial: Title of editorial. [Editorial]. (2012). Journal Title, 14, 1-2.
Not in English If the original version is used as the source, cite the original version. Use diacritical marks and capital letters for the original language if needed. If the English translation is used as the source, cite the English translation. Give the English title without brackets. Titles not in English must be translated into English and put in square brackets.

Author, M. (2000). Title in German: Subtitle of Article [Title in English: Subtitle of article]. Journal in German, 21, 208-217. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Author, P. (2000). Title in French [Title in English: Subtitle of article]. Journal in French, 21, 208-217. doi: xxxxxxxxxxxx
Peer-reviewed article published online ahead of the issue Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (2012). Article title. Title of Journal. Advance online publication. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Supplemental material If you are citing supplemental material which is only available online, include a description of the contents in brackets following the title. [Audio podcast] [Letter to the editor]
Other article types Editorial: Title of editorial. [Editorial]. (2012). Title of Journal, 14, 1-2.

Author, A. A. (2010). Title of review. [Review of the book Title of book, by B. Book Author]. Title of Journal, 22, 123-231. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx

Article in journal supplement Author, A. A. (2004). Article title. Title of Journal, 42(Suppl. 2), xx-xx. doi:xx.xxxxxxxxxx
Conference
Proceedings To cite published proceedings from a book, use book format or chapter format. To cite regularly published proceedings, use journal format.
Paper Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of paper. Paper presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Poster Presenter, A. A. (2012, February). Title of poster. Poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
Thesis
Thesis Author, A. A. (2012). Title of thesis (Unpublished doctoral dissertation or master's thesis). Name of Institution, Location.

Considine, M. (1986). Australian insurance politics in the 1970s: Two case studies (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.

Kassover, A. (1987). Treatment of abusive males: Voluntary vs. court-mandated referrals (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Nova University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
Unpublished work
Manuscript Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2008). Title of manuscript. Unpublished manuscript. Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (2012). Title of manuscript. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Forthcoming article Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (in press). Title of article. Title of Journal, doi:xx.xxxxxxxxx
Forthcoming book Author, A. A. (in press). Book title: Subtitle.
Internet
Website When citing an entire website, it is sufficient just to give the address of the site in the text. The BBC (http://www.bbc.co.uk).
Web page If the format is out of the ordinary (e.g. lecture notes, blogpost), add a description in brackets.

Author, A. (2017). Title of document [Format description]. Retrieved from http://URL

Beyond belief. (2015, January 15). CNN Belief blog [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/

In text: (Beyond belief, 2015)

Burke D. (2015). Beyond belief [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://religion.blogs.cnn.com/

In text: (Burke, 2015)
Blog Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/

Heasman, B., & Corti, K. (2015, August 18). How to build an echoborg: PhD researcher Kevin Corti featured on the BBC [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blogs.lse.ac.uk/psychologylse/2015/08/18/how-to-build-an-echoborg-phd-researcher-kevin-corti-featured-on-the-bbc/

Mathis, T. (2015, August 12). What is human systems integration? [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://blog.apabooks.org/2015/08/12/what-is-human-systems-integration/

rjlipton. (2015). A fast graph isomorphism algorithm [Blog post]. Retrieved from https://rjlipton.wordpress.com/2015/11/11/a-fast-graph-isomorphism-algorithm/
In-Text Citations ... according to research on the health effects of the E-ZPass (Freakonomics, 2010).

Heasman and Corti (2015) wrote about an echoborg.

Mathis (2015) stated that...

Dr. Lipton noted two problems (rjlipton, 2015).
Newspaper or magazine
Newspaper or magazine Author, A. (2012, January 12). Title of article. The Sunday Times, p. 1.

Author, A. (2012, January 12). Title of article. The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.sundaytimes.com

Title of article. (2012, January 12). The Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.sundaytimes.com/xxxx.html
Reports
May or may not be peer-reviewed; may or may not be published. Format as a book reference Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Report No. 123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Working paper Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Working Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Discussion paper Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Location: Publisher.

Author, A. A. (2012). Title of work (Discussion Paper No.123). Retrieved from Name website: http://www.xxxxxxxx.pdf

Personal communication
Personal communication Personal communication includes letters, emails, memos, messages from discussion groups and electronic bulletin boards, personal interviews. Cite these only in the text. Include references for archived material only.

My grandmother’s advice was, “Never pass up a chance to eat, sit down, or use a clean restroom” (S. Dean, personal communication, May 14, 1980).

Other reference types
Patent Cho, S. T. (2005). U.S. Patent No. 6,980,855. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.
Map London Mapping Co. (Cartographer). (1960). Street map. [Map]. Retrieved from http://www.londonmapping.co.uk/maps/xxxxx.pdf
Act Mental Health Systems Act, 41 U.S.C. § 9403 (1988).
Audio and visual media Taupin, B. (1975). Someone saved my life tonight [Recorded by Elton John]. On Captain fantastic and the brown dirt cowboy [CD]. London: Big Pig Music Limited.

Author, A. (Producer). (2009, December 2). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www. xxxxx.com

Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio or distributor.

Smith, A. (Writer), & Miller, R. (Director). (1989). Title of episode [Television series episode]. In A. Green (Executive Producer), Series. New York, NY: WNET.

Miller, R. (Producer). (1989). The mind [Television series]. New York, NY: WNET.
Database Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, A. A. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal Title, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003, from the ARTICLES database.
Data set Author. (2011). National Statistics Office monthly means and other derived variables [Data set]. Retrieved March 6, 2011, from http://www.xxxxx.com

If the dataset is updated regularly, use the year of retrieval in the reference, and using the retrieval date is also recommended.

Computer program Rightsholder, A. A. (2010). Title of program (Version number) [Description of form]. Location: Name of producer.

Name of software (Version Number) [Computer software]. Location: Publisher.

If the program can be downloaded or ordered from a website, give this information in place of the publication information.