References in Text
If the quotation comprises fewer than 40 words, incorporate it into text and enclose the quotation with double quotation marks.
APA in-text citation style uses the author's last name and the year of publication, for example: (Aroud, 2016).
For direct quotations, include the page number as well, for example: (Aroud, 2016, p. 14).
If some of this information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation. Separate references by different authors with a semi-colon, for example: (Aroud, 2016; Smith, 2008).
|Parenthetical citation without author’s name in the text||Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s (Belafonte, 2008).|
|Parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text||
If the authors are named in the text, they do not have to be used in the citation, for exampe:
The text, and Aroud (2016) says "quoted text" (p. 13), which supports my argument.
The text, and this is supported by "quoted text" (Aroud, 2016, p. 13).
|Parenthetical citations with two authors||Include both names, separated by an ampersand (&), for example: Rallying to restore sanity was a revolutionary undertaking (Stewart & Colbert, 2010). Smith and Jones (2012) or (Smith & Jones, 2012).|
|Parenthetical citations with three to five authors||
Include all names in the first in-text parenthetical citation, separated by commas and then an ampersand (&). For all subsequent in-text parenthetical citations, include only the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year if it is the first citation in a paragraph. At first mention, for example: Smith, Jones, Khan, Patel, and Chen (2012) or (Smith, Jones, Khan, Patel, & Chen, 2012).
At subsequent mentions, for example: Smith et al. (2012) or (Smith et al., 2012).
|Parenthetical citations with six or more authors||
Include only the last name of the first author, followed by “et al.” and publication year in all parenthetical citations, for exampe: Smith et al. (2012) (Smith et al., 2012).
The study did not come to any definitive conclusions, for example: (Rothschild et al., 2013).
|Authors with same surname||G. Smith (2012) and F. Smith (2008) G. Smith (2012) and F. Smith (2012).|
Cite first few words of title (in quotation marks or italics depending on journal style for that type of work), plus the year: ("Study Finds," 2007). If anonymous, put (Anonymous, 2012). Use double quotations around the titles of articles, chapters and/or websites, for example: Statistics confirm that the trend is rising (“New Data,” 2013).
Unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles, chapters and/or website should have all major words capitalized. Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures or reports.
|Organization as author||The name of an organization can be spelled out each time it appears in the text or you can spell it out only the first time and abbreviate it after that. The guiding rule is that the reader should be able to find it in the reference list easily, for example: National Research University Higher School of Economics (NRU HSE, 2016) or (National Research University Higher School of Economics [NRU HSE], 2016). University of Oxford (2012) or (University of Oxford, 2012).|
|Author with two works in the same year||Put a, b, c after the year, for example: (Aroud, 2015a, 2015b).|
When it is not possible to see an original document, cite the source of your information on it; do not cite the original assuming that the secondary source is correct, for example:
Long life learning (as cited in Khan, 2013).
|Direct quotations of online material without pagination||
Credit direct quotations of online material by giving the author, year, and page number in parentheses. Many electronic sources do not provide page numbers. If paragraph numbers are visible, use them in place of page numbers.
Use the abbreviation para. Basu and Jones (2007) went so far as to suggest the need for a new “intellectual framework in which to consider the nature and form of regulation in cyberspace” (para. 4).
If the document includes headings and neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the quoted material. In their study, Verbunt, Pernot, and Smeets (2008) found that “ the level of perceived disability in patients with fibromyalgia seemed best explained by their mental health condition and less by their physical condition” (Discussion section, para. 1).
In some cases in which no page or paragraph numbers are visible, headings may be too unwieldy to cite in full. Instead, use a short title enclosed in quotation marks for the parenthetical citation:
Empirical studies have found mixed results on the efficacy of labels in educating consumers and changing consumption behavior” (Golan, Kuchler, & Krissof, 2007, “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted,” para. 4).
The heading was “Mandatory Labeling Has Targeted Information Gaps and Social Objectives.”)
|Classical work||References to classical works such as the Bible and the Qur'an are cited only in the text. Reference list entry is not required. Cite year of translation (Aristotle, trans. 1931) or the version you read: Bible (King James Version).|
|If a quote runs on for more than 40 words||
Others have contradicted this view: Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp. 111–112).
Alternatively, if the quoted source is cited in the sentence introducing the block quote (e.g., “ In 1997, Purcell contradicted this view . . .” ), only the page or paragraph number is needed at the end of the quotation.