The Author Contributions form specifies the exact contributions of each author in a narrative form:
- In the Word doc, “Author Contributions” section appears after the Acknowledgments section and before Conflicts of Interest,
- Please, use JLE form to declare author contributions. Once a manuscript has been accepted for publication, authors will be asked to describe their contribution in a single sentence format.
- Sentences such as "All authors contributed equally to this manuscript" do NOT belong in this section (nor does it belong in the Acknowledgments). Delete any such statements. Declare each author’s specific contribution.
Individuals claiming authorship should meet all 3 of the following conditions:
- Authors make substantial contributions to conception and design, and/or acquisition of data, and/or analysis and interpretation of data;
- Authors participate in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content;
- Authors give final approval of the version to be submitted and any revised version.
Each author should have participated sufficiently in the work to take public responsibility for appropriate portions of the content. Allowing one’s name to appear as an author without having contributed significantly to the study or adding the name of an individual who has not contributed or who has not agreed to the work in its current form is considered a breach of appropriate authorship.
Ghost-writing is NOT acceptable. No one, other than the authors listed below, should have contributed substantially to the writing and revising of the manuscript.
Contributors who do not meet the criteria for authorship should be listed in the acknowledgment.
Examples include individuals who allowed their educational experience to be included, a person who provided purely technical help, copyediting, proofreading or translation assistance (NO ghostwriters allowed), or a department Chair who provided only general support.