The Relationship between EFL Learners’ Flipped Learning Readiness and their Learning Engagement, Critical thinking, and Autonomy: A Structural Equation Modelling Approach
Purpose. The main purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between Iranian EFL learners’ flipped learning readiness and their learning engagement, critical thinking, and autonomy.
Methods. The participants comprised 520 EFL learners studying at various language institutes in the context of Iran. They were chosen according to convenience sampling. In this study, four instruments were used: flipped learning readiness questionnaire, learner autonomy scale, critical thinking inventory, and learning engagement questionnaire. To analyze the relationships among the variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient and structural equation modeling (SEM) was run.
Results. The results revealed that flipped learning readiness correlated positively and significantly with three variables: learning engagement, critical thinking, and autonomy. In addition, based on the results, flipped learning is a positive significant predictor of critical thinking, learning engagement, and autonomy. Moreover, engagement is positively predicted by both critical thinking and autonomy. Finally, the results and their implications in the context of language learning were discussed.
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