The Effects of Implicit Written Corrective Feedback on ESL Learners’ Writing Skills
Background. Providing written corrective feedback (WCF) to learners for their writing tasks is pivotal in ESL learning process.
Purpose. This research aimed to examine the effects of a lecturer’s indication of errors as implicit WCF on ESL learners’ writing skills as well as to identify the learners’ perceptions towards its utilisation in their essay writing tasks.
Methods. This is a mixed methods research which involved the gathering of data both quantitatively and qualitatively. By employing a purposive sampling method, 50 ESL learners from a private university in Selangor, Malaysia were selected for this study. They underwent a two-week treatment period whereby they were trained to self-correct their essays based on the indication of errors as implicit WCF by their lecturer, and a pre-test and a post-test were administered in between. Finally, 10 respondents were interviewed to generate their perceptions on the utilisation of this technique as implicit WCF in their writing tasks.
Results. The results showed that the students had achieved a slightly significant improvement in their essay writing skills after the treatment. They also perceived positively the utilisation of the lecturer’s indication of errors as implicit WCF in their essay writing tasks.
Conclusion and Implications: In sum, the lecturer’s error indication as implicit WCF is quite effective for enhancing writing skills, and the ESL learners perceived it positively. This present study contributes fundamental pedagogical implications and recommendations for future research. ESL instructors are encouraged to adopt and apply this technique in their composition writing lessons.
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