The Development of a Reflective Language Learning Model: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Keywords: construct validation, language learning, model development, reflection, Reflective Language Learning Questionnaire (RLLQ)


Background: Several language learning theories exist to explain the language learning process. Reflective learning is one of the models that has received attention and has been employed to explain language learning and teaching.

Purpose: The present study aimed to develop and validate a close-ended reflective language learning instrument to discover EFL learners’ reflective learning strategies while learning a language.

Method: Based on a comprehensive literature review, 358 concepts were extracted for reflective language learning. Then, experts’ opinions on reflective language learning were gathered, leading to the extraction of 50 general themes. After the experts’ approval, the researchers transformed the concepts into statements and constructed the final version of the questionnaire. In the next step, the initial version of the questionnaire was piloted with 100 participants, reducing the number of items to 47. Then, the piloted instrument was administered to a sample of 398 students. The obtained data were entered into SPSS and LISERL for exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was employed to run an explanatory factor analysis. Varimax rotation was performed on the underlying construct of the 47-item questionnaire. The result was the removal of four items and forming a 43-item questionnaire. A six-factor model of second language learning encompassing twelve behavioral cognitive items, twelve behavioral evaluative items, six behavioral metacognitive items, six behavioral interactional items, four behavioral reflective journal items, and three behavioral retrospective items was obtained. Then, the researchers performed confirmatory factor analysis to verify the six factors. Finally, a reflective language learning model was developed.

Results: The results showed that the newly developed Reflective Language Learning Questionnaire (RLLQ) was valid and reliable. The model formulated based on the data gathered from the administration of RLLQ also enjoyed acceptable fitness indices.

Conclusion: The questionnaire could be used in future studies. Researchers interested in reflective language learning, language teachers intending to follow reflective practices in their classes, and syllabus designers believing that reflection promotes learning can employ RLLQ.   


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How to Cite
AsshabiS., RashtchiM., & SiyyariM. (2023). The Development of a Reflective Language Learning Model: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. Journal of Language and Education, 9(4), 11-30.